The two European companies vertical integration models are considered textbook cases in the industry. In contrast, many Chinese manufacturers have adopted a strategy of diversification in the industry, with the exception of ETI that has been diligently following the vertical integration creed.
The company has become a fully vertically integrated company with a comprehensive supply chain incorporating LED chips, LED packages and lighting products. For many years, vertical integration and diversification were two parallel business models in the LED industry. Yet, in companies previously focused in the LED package market sector, such as Cree and MLS or also known as Forest Lighting have started to expand into downstream lighting sector, widening the scope of their vertical integration.
In stark contrast, traditional lighting players including Philips and Osram have been separating key lighting businesses, and putting them up for sale. Philips for instance sold LED component business Lumileds and automotive lighting business in , with further plans of selling its entire lighting business.
Even Osram has parted with its light source business, which traditionally had a huge revenue stake. To a certain extent, the two global lighting giants have abandoned the vertical integration business models that they have spent years deploying and developing on the market in exchange for specialized business strategies.
Hence, the emerging question is are these developments a result of paradigm shifts in the management environment, or has vertical integration become an outdated strategy?
When is the best time to implement or relinquish vertical integration? Why is vertical integration necessary? Economists have provided a theoretical explanation a long time ago. Since vendors are shipping products to many clients on the market, they can lower production costs significantly, even if the procurement volume is moderate. Yet, there are many disadvantages in a fair trade market.
When the production of a particular raw material is highly used as a specific asset, than the difference between procuring the material from another supplier and in-house manufacturing becomes insignificant. In contrast, procuring raw materials from another manufacturer could even result product information leaks or being held hostage by the supplier.
In other words, if there is only a single supply source for the badly needed raw material, the supplier could easily exercise control over the buyer. In contrary, if a product sold is overtly reliant on a specific distribution channel, for instance a particular market or client, than the distribution channel resources would become a specific asset. If the company is too dependent on this distribution channel and trade from this market, and hence become limited by the distribution channel.
Imagine a scenario where a large manufacturer had only a single client. To prevent this situation from happening, manufacturers had to adapt vertical integration strategies to encourage in-house raw material manufacturing capacity through backward integration, or acquire distribution and sales capacity via forward integration strategies.
However, vertical integration strategies will become less attractive to companies, when the in-house supply chain becomes generalized, and the company can conveniently procure resources through trade.
At this point, spinning-off businesses can assist companies in removing bureaucracy that has stemmed from trading internally, and refocus on core businesses. The complicated business relationship between Philips and Lumileds When Lumileds became a wholly owned subsidiary of Philips in , the LED lighting market penetration rate remained low. Novelty and advanced technology were the characteristics of the LED industry, and Lumileds was a leader in high power LED lighting technologies at the time.
Meanwhile, Philips did not need to procure a lot of LEDs, and there were only a handful of quality suppliers to choose from. Nichia was far ahead of the pack among Asian manufacturers at the time, with two out of three major Korean LED companies, Samsung and Seoul Semiconductors just emerging.
Even after Seoul Semiconductor became a leading company in the industry, it was being hunted down by Nichia all over the globe for patent infringement. The majority of Chinese manufacturers were still imitating leading companies at this point, and were dependent on Taiwanese companies for LED chips and packages.
Advanced LED technology and production capacity were specific assets for lighting companies. This was also why Philips needed to vertically integrate Lumileds into its internal supply chain, most importantly the move would allow it to grasp changes in the LED market. The company was able to deploy its technology and patent standards ahead of the proliferation of LEDs in the market.
The company would not have achieved this by depending on the market. Besides acquiring Lumileds, Philips supported its vertical integration strategy through a series of mergers and acquisitions. Most Chinese and Taiwanese companies have positioned themselves in diversification, and have searched for distribution channels.
Under this new market environment, Philips Lighting had to turn to outsourcing to maintain its competitiveness, and procure raw materials and other resources from the market to lower costs, and boost its market competitiveness. Cleaning of wafer: manufactured wafers are cleaned through rigorous chemical and ultrasonic process using various solvents; this process removes the organic matters that may settle on the polished wafer surface.
This cleaning process will give the better LED. Step 2 Adding epitaxial layers 5. The layers of semiconducting crystal are manufacture on the surface of a polished clean wafer this process is called Liquid Phase Epitaxy LPE. In this technique, semiconducting layers that have same crystalline orientation are deposited on the wafer. After adding several layers it is mandatory to add additional dopants to alter the characteristics of diodes for efficiency and color.
Once additional doping is done wafer is again placed in a high-pressure furnace were it in a gaseous atmosphere containing the dopants like nitrogen or zinc ammonium; Nitrogen is added to the top layer of the diode to make the yellow or green light Adding metal contacts 7.
Introduce metal contact: Metal contact is introduced on the wafer. The contact pattern depends on the design stage and diode combination whether it is singular or combines. Contact pattern is reproduced in photoresist resist which is a light-sensitive compound, the light-sensitive compound is distributing over the surface of the wafer. The photoresist resist is hardened by a brief at low temperature around oC. The pattern is duplicated on photoresist placing it over the layered wafer and exposing the resist with ultraviolet light.
The exposed area of photoresist resist is washed with the developer and unexposed area is covered with the semiconducting layers. Contact metals is evaporated in another high-temperature vacuum-sealed chamber and filled in the exposed area The contact metal will stick to the exposed area of semiconductor wafer and photoresist can then be washed away with acetone. In result only metal contacts are remaining on the semiconductor wafer. An additional layer of metal will add on the back side of wafers according to final mounting scheme for the LED.
Deposited metal undergoes an annealing process where the wafer is heated for several hours in the furnace with an inert atmosphere of hydrogen or nitrogen flowing through it; during this process, the bond between the metal and the semiconductor become stronger.
A single 2-inch wafer created in this way will have a similar pattern repeated up to times on it; this gives an indication of the extent of the completed diodes. The diodes are cut by cleaving or sawing method, each segment cut from the wafer is known as the die which is a difficult process having lots of error.As a result, lighting manufacturers looking for future growth opportunities have to focus on determining favorable selling prices of products, reducing discomfort glare or flicker, providing user-friendly interface and adding value to their products. The crystalline semiconductor is developed in high temperature and high-pressure chamber. It is thus expected that North America and Europe, where most of the brands are based, will be the major battlefields for global lighting companies. Considering the LED lighting market has been taking a breather, it is wiser to work with companies who have sales channels in over countries than to build new channels from scratch like OPPLE Lighting. Novelty and advanced technology were the characteristics of the LED industry, and Lumileds was a leader in high power LED lighting technologies at the time. The LED lighting market, during to , prospered vigorously, and sustained a steady growth in the second half of
Since vendors are shipping products to many clients on the market, they can lower production costs significantly, even if the procurement volume is moderate. Meanwhile, Philips did not need to procure a lot of LEDs, and there were only a handful of quality suppliers to choose from. Cleaning of wafer: manufactured wafers are cleaned through rigorous chemical and ultrasonic process using various solvents; this process removes the organic matters that may settle on the polished wafer surface.
LEDs have been invincible and grabbed the market shares of incandescent lamps, fluorescent lamps, and HID lamps. From then on, its packaging capacity has grown by 1 to 2 fold every year, making it the largest LED packaging firm in the world. Malaysia Malaysia has started to value environmental industries in recent years, with the aim of stimulating strong growth in green industries. The gold is sufficiently delicate to twist and adhere to a like metal surface.
As for public lighting sector, India plans to replace residential lighting and streetlights with LEDs in cities by March In recent years, countries around the world are becoming increasingly concerned with energy and environmental issues, which is closely tied with human survival. Moreover, Osram could strengthen its core businesses through funds received from selling its general lighting business. In result only metal contacts are remaining on the semiconductor wafer. Hence, the emerging question is are these developments a result of paradigm shifts in the management environment, or has vertical integration become an outdated strategy? In both advanced and emerging markets, though having the advantage of energy savings, the penetration of LED products has been hindered by their high prices.
LED lighting technologies witnessed unprecedented advancements during these 5 years, contributing to expanded range of applications: from indicator lights to lighting fixtures; from lighting fixtures to outdoor landscape lighting; and from display backlighting to general lighting.
In recent years, it has also produced LED luminaires for residential, commercial, and job site lighting. For clients to willingly choose Cree, there needs to be enough potential benefits to compensate these risks.
Wholesale market You can sell your LED bulb at wholesale market of your city. To further promote LED lighting plans, the Malaysian government has gradually phased out or banned the usage of incandescent lamps or traditional luminaires in buildings or real estates in The company has continued to manage competing lighting and package markets, which will continue to create issues for the company.
But there is a catch. This cleaning process will give the better LED.
Since the s, the past 4 decades have been a slow and long process where energy-saving lamps initiated the digitalization in the lighting industry. Recent Japanese policies that spurred proliferation of LEDs. The company would not have achieved this by depending on the market.
However, vertical integration strategies will become less attractive to companies, when the in-house supply chain becomes generalized, and the company can conveniently procure resources through trade. Thus, although they have gradually transitioned to LED lighting, and developed a clear vision for their LED businesses, LED lighting revenue still fell short of expectations. We know that exposure to default risk is one of the main trade costs.
In contrast, procuring raw materials from another manufacturer could even result product information leaks or being held hostage by the supplier. As a result, lighting manufacturers looking for future growth opportunities have to focus on determining favorable selling prices of products, reducing discomfort glare or flicker, providing user-friendly interface and adding value to their products. Hence, Cree once again strongly promoted vertical integration strategies as it paved its entry into the lighting market. One would expect these three lighting giants to take the opportunity to strengthen their business operations and continue to expand market shares during these pivotal periods.