Madrid, C. La Haya, Martinus Nijhoff, la l. Por eso no encontramos tampoco en el libro XII como el propio J. Al final de XII 6. P a t z ig que insiste, como J. M etaphysics. Friburgo, Rombach, ; G. Amslerdam, North Holland Pub. Una ciencia del ser, Santiago de Chile, Ed. Situados en esta perspectiva, han de tenerse en cuenta las dos consideraciones siguientes.
VII 2. El texto De todos los manuscritos griegos utilizados por E. El primero de ellos data del s. El segundo. Posteriormente, tanto W. Ross como W. Ross Aristotle's Metaphysics. It was a measure of comfort that Dad lived long enough to know that this book was a possibility. This literary generation was the standard-bearer of the type of social realism that characterized the late s and the early s in Spain.
The distinction is such that it is possible to think that the two periods correspond to the work of two different authors.
Of course, closer inspection reveals very clear connections between the novels of the early period and those of the later phase. This concept of total commitment leads Goytisolo to inject a personal element into his novels. The subjectivism of the novels is not their primary purpose. They should not be interpreted as autobiographical. Rather, the personal element is there to give force and authenticity to the social critique.
Hence in analysing the novels we must be prepared to recognize such contradictions and ambiguities. This intellectual stance becomes translated into an aesthetic posture of total subversion of all that constitutes conventional society. Goytisolo himself has stated on numerous occasions his belief that a work of art contains elements of both. Even his intertextual technique, he claims, developed quite independently of the Structuralist movement.
Moreover, since one of the ideas I will be stressing in this study is the way Goytisolo attempts to bridge that traditional gap between the artistic and the social realm through attention to the role of the reader, the question of aesthetic perception is doubly apt. However, according to his own analysis, the radical content of these novels was contradicted by their traditional literary form. A coincidence of several factors in the early s led to the abandonment of this approach, but an important one was the manifest failure of its performative intent.
Curiously, this opens the way to a new kind of artistic performativeness, of active involvement with reality via the reader. What is interesting is the way in which the new aesthetic practice of the later novels responds to and enacts the transgressive and radical themes that it is agreed still underlie the novels, and the degree of success they achieve. The process of production of reality is examined at two levels which are interrelated: that of language and that of literature.
Reality gives way to myth - myth in the sense of the various ways society represents itself to itself. In Structuralist Poetics, Jonathan Culler claims: More than any other literary form, more perhaps than any other type of writing, the novel serves as the model by which society conceives of itself, the discourse in and through which it articulates the world.
Much of their activity is directed at disturbing and playing with our narrative expectations as a means of telling us something or making us think about the world around us.
LLL, 90 Thus Goytisolo emphasizes how in these novels the engagement with literary form and language is inextricably bound up with social concern. However, the study will mainly seek to determine the reading that the text itself proposes. Clearly, in novels as richly layered and semantically dense as those of Goytisolo, no analysis can aspire to be comprehensive.
Such criticism is largely characterized by the primacy of the thematic approach, and where formal features are studied they tend to be interpreted mimetically, as means of representing the content.
Therefore, by the turn of the century the scenic presence of food became much less sporadic and defined new ways of symbolic representation of contemporaneous political, social and aesthetic preoccupations.
The organic nature of food, together with its strong political and social connotations induced forms of direct and, at times, visceral reaction in the audience . The proliferation of food on the stage echoed a relatively recent exposure of international and traditional cuisines, the transportation of foodstuffs that had hitherto been unavailable, the pervasiveness of the fast-food industry following the U. Hence, food provided them with strong and sometimes disturbing images, and a direct way to convey messages of a society that is moving uncontrollably fast, exchanging spirituality for materiality, and gradually losing its identity.
These were the ill effects of an affluence in the West that was to be cut short abruptly after the international economic crisis of , and the European financial crisis that followed soon thereafter. Within this frame of economic instability, the question of food and nutrition takes a whole different meaning, because poverty has become widespread in Europe, leading to food scarcity within a growing part of the population, especially in Southern Europe that has also very recently been stricken by the refugee crisis.
Back in , I had exchanged a number of emails with the late Arnold Wesker, who had placed the subject of food in many of his plays  partly as a result of his personal experience of working as a pastry chef in a Parisian restaurant, in the s.
Hence, food in the theatre has acquired new uses, being employed less as a stage prop for aesthetic purposes and more as a tool of protest, and social inclusion. For instance, some theatres in Athens ask for the contribution of food instead of money.
They later offer the food items to vulnerable social groups  , or use it to create a shared meal after the end of the show. In this kind of difficult times the social role of theatre is therefore reinforced: it offers not only a theatrical experience but also nutrition and conviviality, which are both much needed.
In Spain, theatre companies sell carrots instead of tickets, because their VAT percentage is lower . In order to answer to this question we will look at examples of performances that have taken place during times of food shortage, in which either actual or symbolic food is used. La Baie de Naples was intended to be a bitter commentary on the consumer society in the West — a society obsessed with materialism and in lack of intellectual aspiration.
These gigantic food constructions were devoured by the incessantly chattering guests, who spilled them onto the stage floor, or even threw them to one another, at a rapid, hysteric pace that finally descended into paroxysm. When the production was shown in New York in , the audience at La MaMa received it enthusiastically, because they saw in it a typical French gastronomic extravaganza, and laughed a lot with the exotic images of gluttonous French characters who talked a lot and ate a lot.
On the contrary, when the performance toured in the USSR that same year, the economic and social context brought about a very different reaction from the audience. The tour had been scheduled at least one year before to be shown in three different cities, Moscow, Leningrad and Kalinin, as part of a bilateral cultural exchange. However, the performances took place during a year of significant historical change.
During that final year of the Communist regime, the Soviet Union experienced a severe food crisis and people struggled to survive. It was too late though to cancel the exchange and the performances had to be shown as scheduled. While it was impossible to find the necessary food items for the show in the USSR, the company decided to carry all the foodstuffs from France, and transported them in refrigerated containers.But the pig has somehow become a member of the family, since they have been feeding it as their own baby. Sobre algunos problemas relativos a la autenticidad de los libros II y XI pueden verse los trabajos correspondientes incluidos en: P. Aristotle's Conception o f Ontology, Padua. The process of production of reality is examined at two levels which are interrelated: that of language and that of literature. Goytisolo himself has stated on numerous occasions his belief that a work of art contains elements of both.
Sklodowska, E. I thank him and his literary agent for their kind permission to quote from his works. Hence, food provided them with strong and sometimes disturbing images, and a direct way to convey messages of a society that is moving uncontrollably fast, exchanging spirituality for materiality, and gradually losing its identity. Myrsiades, L. Within this frame of economic instability, the question of food and nutrition takes a whole different meaning, because poverty has become widespread in Europe, leading to food scarcity within a growing part of the population. La Haya, Martinus Nijhoff, la l.
De Maeseneer and P. D, 59 43 In conventional realism, more emphasis is placed on the meaning of words than on their form, which it presents as natural. Hence his admiration for the work of Rojas, whose sense of alienation from his social environment and its values results in a more comprehensively unconventional text. Stephen Heath London: Fontana, , While the economic crisis is still ongoing, it is probably too early to draw conclusions and evaluate how the scenic use of food in European theatre has followed these rapid social and economic changes. These gigantic food constructions were devoured by the incessantly chattering guests, who spilled them onto the stage floor, or even threw them to one another, at a rapid, hysteric pace that finally descended into paroxysm.
Como consecuencia de ello me separo del texto de Ross en una veintena de casos. Libertad, libertad, libertad, 91— D, 59 43 In conventional realism, more emphasis is placed on the meaning of words than on their form, which it presents as natural.
The novel must concern itself with reality and, above all, the reality of the country in which it is produced.
However, the study will mainly seek to determine the reading that the text itself proposes. The characteristic of bourgeois society, according to this trend of thought, is to mask its signs, to project itself as natural. Even his intertextual technique, he claims, developed quite independently of the Structuralist movement.
In this study special attention will be given to precisely those instances of narrative dislocation and aporia that disturb a straightforward reading. During the course of the play it is revealed that the three siblings clandestinely raise a pig in their apartment  , in order to kill it, get its meat and make lard which they will later sell in the Black Market. It was a rejection of Realism which, in its focus on content and tendency to disguise the process of enunciation, fostered the illusion of language as a transparent vehicle. In order to answer to this question we will look at examples of performances that have taken place during times of food shortage, in which either actual or symbolic food is used.