Statistical analysis of Japanese residents in Australia may reveal their diverse demographic and socioeconomic characteristics but is limited in its capacity to portray this diversity. Unlike the US, where up to 35, Japanese women migrated during the s, there was no legal framework in Australia, like the US War Brides Act of , that allowed American servicemen who married abroad to bring their wives home. Still, these lonely young women, far from home, had to jump through all kinds of hoops. The contemporary experience of intermarriage for these women and their families is decidedly transnational. In general, the birth and raising of children prompted them to search for and develop supportive social networks. They had to learn not just the language but the customs, culture and expectations.
Ai recalled that after the birth of her son she felt the need to be closer to her parents and has returned with Aaron every year. For the mothers, these groups provided a time and place to bond in their native language with other Japanese women of similar experiences. Though regarded as holidays by their husbands, for the wives these trips were important opportunities to return home and gain access to experiences and items they missed from everyday life in Australia. Lonely young women like Cherry Parker, far from home, had to jump through all kinds of hoops. Despite the army's strict no-fraternisation policy, they fell in love and married in June
In her presentation of the varied experiences and reflections of her Japanese informants, including war brides, those of Japanese wives dominate. Coughlan, J. She believes that these patterns in Japanese- Australian intermarriage are suggestive of cultural attitudes to gender and gender roles which categorise Japanese wives in two ways: those eager to escape gender restrictions from a still largely patriarchal Japanese society, or traditional women who come for other reasons and find themselves attractive because of their old-fashioned attitudes.
This means they may not be easily located or possibly not even listed on our collection database, RecordSearch. Comparative work with intermarriage families settled in Japan or Japanese families in Australia may reveal different patterns in social networks or engagement with educational institutions. The scope of the original study upon which this article is based was not ambitious enough to correct this.
Yoshiko made the decision to stay in Australia. Each couple were provided an information sheet and short questionnaire in both English and Japanese. Atsumi, R. Other works which investigate intermarriage in Australia make very few references to Japanese-Australian couples.
Kasumi explained her family would plan new trips each time to show Kevin and Kacie different parts of the country. Brisbane: Bookpal, Unlike the latter who often concealed their Japaneseness in an attempt to assimilate into a post-war White Australia, the former now retain and maintain their Japanese identity, utilising it to develop supportive networks, in a multicultural Australia. This means they may not be easily located or possibly not even listed on our collection database, RecordSearch. Nagatomo, J. Additionally, research into Japanese women who have separated from their Australian partners would add further dimensions to the understanding of migration as a dynamic and ongoing process.
The technical and interpretational issues of transcription were taken into consideration. Sayuri continued: Interestingly, though the wives in this study have established and maintained small support groups for the personal and instrumental motivations discussed above, they are keen to limit their involvement with official organisations which operate to provide similar support networks and resources.
During the early years of her marriage, Yoshiko travelled with Victor to various army posts in Queensland, Korea and Singapore. Next, the methodology of my original study will be outlined. Methodology This study employs a qualitative research methodology, suitable for undertaking flexible research which can account for subjective realities. It is here that qualitative studies can make a significant contribution. Kasumi explained her family would plan new trips each time to show Kevin and Kacie different parts of the country.
In some suburban communities in their new homeland, there was still a strong sense of Japan being the enemy. Due to space constraints, a detailed profile of each participant couple is not included here. Returning had become increasingly expensive as children were born and grew older. Previously, such women were often tourists, students, or working holidaymakers with akogare for foreign, particularly Western, experiences and lifestyles.
With many coming to regard Australia as their home and choosing to become citizens, yet still proudly maintaining their ethnic origins, Nagata describes them as having a hyphenated cultural identity: Japanese-Australians. Table 1: Participant wives and their families Local Relationships: Networks with the Japanese Community The Japanese lifestyle migrant community in Australia involves social networks that are deterritorialised, autonomous, and non-organisational. Some Japanese partners also spoke of ensuring their children grew up with a fundamental knowledge of Japanese and a positive image of Japan.