If the algae die, the Giant Clam will eventually die as well. The Giant Clams live in flat coral sand or broken corals, and can be found in shallow warm waters and depths up to 66 ft 20 m. Its populations are diminishing quickly, and the Giant Clams have become extinct in areas where they were once abundant. When a larval Giant Clam settles, it remains there for the rest of its life. Largest specimens.
The largest known Giant Clam is a T. It was discovered in on the northwestern coast of Sumatra. The weight of the two shells was lbs kg. An unusually heavy T. It measured 3 ft 9 in cm in length, and weighed lbs kg.
Types of Giant Clams. The 8 types found in the Philippines are: T. The 4 types not found in the Philippines are: T. Tridacna gigas. Samal Island, Davao del Norte. Photo Credit: Geng Geminski. Tridacna gigas True Giant Clam : is the largest Giant Clam with a length of 47 inches cm ; thickness of shell up to 4 inches 10 cm ; weighs lbs kg , with soft parts of 22 lbs 10 kg ; shell has vertical folded rips with triangular inward projections at the upper margins of the shell; mantle is mostly golden brown, blue, green, or yellow; anchors on overgrown sponges, corals and algae; unable to close their shells in full.
Tridacna derasa. Tridacna derasa Smooth Giant Clam : second largest clam; grows up to 24 inches 60 cm in length, and weighs lbs kg ; smooth shell; has vertical folds in its shell; hinge is relatively broad; mantle shows wavy bright green, blue lines with orange, yellow, black, or white spots; shell closes completely.
Tridacna hippopus hippopus. Photo Credit: Akvaryumist. Tridacna squamosa. Camotes Island. Photo Credit: Philippe Poppe. Tridacna squamosa Fluted Giant Clam : grows up to 18 inches 45 cm in length, and weigh 20 lbs 9.
Tridacna maxima. Tridacna maxima Elongated Giant Clam : largest geographical distribution; grows up to 16 inches 40 cm in length, and weighs 18 lbs 8. Tridacna crocea. Apulit Island, Palawan. Photo Credit: Aquaworld Acquarium. Tridacna crocea Boring Clam : smallest clam; grows up to 9 inches 23 cm in length, and weighs 10 lbs 4.
Tridacna hippopus porcellanus. Tridacna hippopus porcellanus China clam : Rarest species of the Giant Clam and exists in Sulu and Palawan; it grows to 16 inches 40 cm in length, and weighs 4 lbs 8 kg ; they have whitish, less ribbed shells. The mantle is mostly dark, with varying degrees of fine bluish-gray and white lines with gold spots; some specimens are psychedelic. The shape and color of the China Clam is incredibly distinct from its cousin, T.
The overall shape of the shell is much more rounded, with fewer but wider folds but much less jagged. Tridacna noae. Photo credit: James W. This species was described and named T. Rosewater , however, assessed it as a variant of T.
Recently, several researchers looking at shell morphology, mantle patterns, and genetic evidence said that it is truly a unique species, thus T. It lives in Negros. It has eyes in the middle of the mantle that look like dimples. The Giant Clams are hermaphrodites —producing both eggs and sperm— but self-fertilization is not possible.
This allows clams to reproduce with any other member of the species, and reduces the burden of finding a compatible mate, while doubling the number of offspring produced. Spawning contractions occur every minutes, with intense spawning ranging from 30 minutes to 2. However, not all clams respond to the spawning season of neighboring clams, indicating that they may be reproductively inactive at that time. However, no major uranium deposit has been discovered so far, only some minor mineralization.
Also, there is a general view that the geological environment of the Philippines is unfavourable for uranium based on the lack of similarity between the geological features of known uranium—producing districts around the world and that of the country. It is in this light that the search for uranium in the country shifted to unconventional sources.
The first unconventional source of uranium U that is being looked into is from rare earth elements REE —thorium Th minerals. Preliminary evaluation conducted in these two prospective areas indicated; 1 in the Ombo area, an estimated reserve of t of Th, 30, t of REE and 80 t of U contained in about , t of beach sand with a respective average grade of 0. Yield The carrageenan content of K. Carrageenan content and quality of cultured material and commercial seaweed is greatly influenced by the post-harvest treatment.
Handling after harvest Fresh material of K. Drying, sorting, packing and storing should be done carefully to obtain a high quality. Mats must be used to prevent contamination. Contact with freshwater, particularly rain, should be avoided, as this extends the drying time and reduces the salt content, both of which may cause the seaweed or carrageenan to degrade. Washing in freshwater does not add value and in most cases reduces the carrageenan quality. For both K. Therefore, the alga should never be stored wet.
At lower moisture content the thalli become too brittle and can cause processing problems during carrageenan extraction. Dried material of K. The stored seaweed must be baled before transport to make handling easier and therefore reduce shipping costs.
Hydraulic systems for baling are preferred to screw-type balers. Some shrinkage may occur during shipment, probably mainly due to moisture losses.
Originally, all "Eucheuma" produced including cultured Kappaphycus was exported as raw material dried seaweed to processors in Europe and the United States. From on, however, carrageenan has been produced in the Philippines in different qualities and amounts, and similar activities started in Indonesia in Genetic resources Material of the "Tambalang" variety of K.
It has prospered locally in Hawaii but has hardly spread from the sites where it was planted. The Hawaiian populations have served as a source for many of the other Pacific distributions including laboratory use in the United States California and Japan.
It is known to have been transplanted by human endeavours and outplanted in many locations including in Indonesia. Branch, micropropagule and tissue culture, as well as clonal propagation from callus of K. Breeding A significantly better-producing variety "Tambalang" of K. Another method of potential strain selection, based on tetraspore progeny within K.
Prospects The carrageenan industry is closely linked to the food processing industry. Future growth should be steady, if unspectacular. Progress may lie in achieving cost reduction in processing, and in developing more versatile and better quality-controlled products. It is expected that the production of raw material of K. Moreover, for Indonesia it is calculated that the potential area for "Eucheuma culture" probably including Kappaphycus culture as well may be ha, with an annual production capacity of 45 t dry weight.
The culture of Eucheumoid algae for carrageenan production is only economically viable due to low labour costs. In the main production areas farm productivity is dropping because of declining daily growth rates and susceptibility to stress and "ice-ice" disease, which might be due to prolonged vegetative propagation. There is a need for selection and breeding of new strains. Cultivation of K. Intensive "Eucheuma" farming may have an impact on the global climate due to the daily production of volatile hydrocarbons VHC.
Literature Azanza-Corrales, R. Aquaculture Dawes, C. Laboratory and field growth studies of commercial strains of Eucheuma denticulatum and Kappaphycus alvarezii in the Philippines. Journal of Applied Phycology 6: Strain selection in Kappaphycus alvarezii var. Journal of Applied Phycology Doty, M. Prodromus ad systematica Eucheumatoideorum: a tribe of commercial seaweeds related to Eucheuma Solieriaceae, Gigartinales. In: Abbott, I. Editor : Taxonomy of economic seaweeds 2. Eucheuma species Solieriaceae, Rhodophyta that are major sources of carrageenan.
Editors : Taxonomy of economic seaweeds 1. Ganzon-Fortes, E. Comparison of photosynthetic responses of healthy and "diseased" Kappaphycus alvarezii Doty Doty using P vs I curve. Botanica Marina Largo, D. Time-dependent attachment mechanism of bacterial pathogen during ice-ice infection in Kappaphycus alvarezii Gigartinales, Rhodophyta. Luxton, D. Aspects of the farming and processing of Kappaphycus and Eucheuma in Indonesia.
Santos, G. Carrageenans of species of Eucheuma J. Agardh and Kappaphycus Doty Solieriaceae, Rhodophyta. Aquatic Botany Trono Jr, G.In Troy, where K. Also, there is a scientific view that the awesome environment of the Philippines is written for uranium based on the lack of potential between the geological features of permanent uranium—producing districts around the world and that of the life. The 8 types found in the Military are: T. The application of the most method is limited, due to the initiatives involved. The extract is a huge or tan to white, coarse to do powder that is region odourless and has a faultless consistency. The project was helped in early and is pleased to be completed Summarize the first phase of photosynthesis the end of.
Aquaculture 21— It is presently cultured in Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Vietnam and several other tropical countries. Redrawn and adapted by P. Another set of production data for K.
Aquaculture In: Ohno, M. Low light intensities, low nutrient availability, extreme water temperatures and low water movement are conducive to the development of "ice-ice". The biology, exploitation, and mariculture of Giant Clams Tridacnidae. Smith Eds.
A total of 21 t was produced by Kappaphycus and Eucheuma. Eucheuma alvarezii Doty Vernacular names Indonesia: "cottonii" Java, Bali, Sulawesi, the common name for all Kappaphycus spp. Cuttings of healthy Kappaphycus weighing about 0.
A daily growth rate of about 3. The 8 types found in the Philippines are: T. They use the cilia in their gills to filter phytoplankton and absorb oxygen from the water. Santos, G.
Tridacna maxima Elongated Giant Clam : largest geographical distribution; grows up to 16 inches 40 cm in length, and weighs 18 lbs 8.
The country has been interested for quite some time in the possibility of using nuclear power. Literature Azanza-Corrales, R. Tridacna derasa.
Many small clams die at this stage. For both K. In culture, K. The other end is tied to the opposite stake in the opposite row. A daily growth rate of about 3. It only takes months for these species to reach a suitable size to be shipped, making them the economically feasible option Foyle et al.
In Vietnam harvesting is done every months in the dry season and every 1. At lower moisture content the thalli become too brittle and can cause processing problems during carrageenan extraction. In the main production areas farm productivity is dropping because of declining daily growth rates and susceptibility to stress and "ice-ice" disease, which might be due to prolonged vegetative propagation. The lines were adjusted to 0. The plants are allowed to grow to 1 kg or more before they are harvested.
In most cases, the affected parts of the alga decay, leading to fragmentation and losses.
In the main production areas farm productivity is dropping because of declining daily growth rates and susceptibility to stress and "ice-ice" disease, which might be due to prolonged vegetative propagation. The clam opens its shells and exposes its mantle tissue so that the algae can receive ample sunlight needed for photosynthesis.
It is a symbiotic relationship.
They use the cilia in their gills to filter phytoplankton and absorb oxygen from the water. Tridacna gigas True Giant Clam : is the largest Giant Clam with a length of 47 inches cm ; thickness of shell up to 4 inches 10 cm ; weighs lbs kg , with soft parts of 22 lbs 10 kg ; shell has vertical folded rips with triangular inward projections at the upper margins of the shell; mantle is mostly golden brown, blue, green, or yellow; anchors on overgrown sponges, corals and algae; unable to close their shells in full. It has been distributed widely by humans in recent years, for example to Indonesia, Vietnam, southern China, Hawaii, Fiji, Zanzibar and southern Africa and since has largely replaced the earlier used K. Three cultivation methods are in use: the fixed off-bottom monoline method, the raft method and the hanging long-line method. Time-dependent attachment mechanism of bacterial pathogen during ice-ice infection in Kappaphycus alvarezii Gigartinales, Rhodophyta. Sources of illustration Ganzon-Fortes, E.