Regarding the image built for the woman, we observe that there is an evident distance between those two female personas: whereas Madonna plays a happy woman in love, Deren embodies an anxious, tormented woman. The video is situated, therefore, in the quadrant 3 of Graphic 6. Music video Hollywood Figure 8 , besides its overwhelming plastic beauty, has another peculiarity in Madonna's videography: it was formally accused of plagiarism by Samuel Bourdin, the owner of the copyrights of his father Guy Bourdin's photographs.
It is not an exaggeration to say that Guy Bourdin was one of the most important, influent and innovative fashion and publicity photographers of all times. For the critic Alison Gingeras , Bourdin was responsible for redefining concepts and establishing new aesthetic standards in the fashion and publicity worlds, mixing surrealism, glamour, irony, sensuality and a lot of controversy in his work. Madonna and director Jean-Baptiste Mondino retook a series of images originally produced by Guy Bourdin, presenting in the music video Hollywood an unaccredited 're-reading' that was dangerously close to the source text, as it can be seen in the photomontages in Figure 9 , attached.
He said that in spite of the respect he holds for the singer and the music video director, the plagiarism is evident: "[ In intericonic relationships established in artistic productions, the borderline separating 'inspiration' from mere plagiarism is not always clear.
To avoid unnecessary discussions on the theme, I assume here as a criterion of definition of what plagiarism is or not the legal or administrative decision establishing a text verbal or non-verbal as original or result of illegal appropriation.
As for the intertextual function of our model, it is clear that both the iconoclastic pictures of Guy Bourdin and the corrosive lyrics of the song Hollywood follow the same direction in terms of giving a critical look at the status quo.
With his lenses, Bourdin managed to unite a highly sophisticated glamour and a ferocious tone about the fashion world, through images "full of sexuality and violence, escaping from the obvious in daily life scenes" PACCE, On the other hand, regarding the form of intertextuality between Bourdin's and the music video's images, it is possible to see an obvious visual and 'attitude' similarity between the female identities built in both cases.
Madonna, however, by not acknowledging the authorship of the source text, had the intention of leaving this intericonicity only implicit. Final Considerations We have explained throughout this paper how the proposed analytical model for intertextuality operates. There are, however, some issues yet unsolved, raised here as a provocation for possible future debates. One of them is the following: if there is an equally evident formal visual similarity between Figures 1 and 2 Madonna in Material Girl and Marilyn Monroe in Gentlemen Prefer Blondes and Figures 8 and 9 Madonna in Hollywood and Guy Bourdin's images , why is that the music video Hollywood is considered as plagiarism and Material Girl isn't?
A possible answer to this question might be found in the notion of memory socially shared in a given culture. In this sense, hence, Marilyn's exuberant image singing Diamonds Are a Girl's Best Friend is already a part of the Western culture's social memory, thus constituting a founding discourse. That is, although it is possible to identify the source text in a precise way and obviously its authorship , it is already part of our collective imaginary, regardless of being legally public domain something that also happened in the case of the live music video Vogue in relation to Marie Antoinette's image.
A flagrant evidence of this hypothesis may be noticed in the several 're-readings' of Marilyn Monroe's iconic performance in different media, such as printed and video advertisement, movies, etc. On the other hand, Guy Bourdin is still restricted to a small group of fashion and publicity professionals.
Despite having his images printed in various international publications for over thirty years, the French photographer remains unknown to the larger audiences. Besides, it is also necessary to consider the fact that the wide divulgation of a film, especially when it features a renowned star like Marilyn Monroe, enables a more solid and lasting power of cognitive assimilation and social crystallization, compared to advertisement campaigns in fashion magazines or video artworks produced by Bourdin.
Therefore, as we can observe from the discussion of the examples of music videos previously analysed, it is crucial that we take into consideration the role played by intertextuality in the meaning making process of any text. Evidently, not every music video will fit so precisely in one of the graphics above. It is possible to find music video texts dialoguing with other texts in a multifaceted, unclear way, which Fairclough , p.
Hence we can see the importance of having selected, for this paper, examples from an artist with extensive videographic work. Based on the choice and discussion of Madonna's music video clips, it was possible to make a 'didactic' analysis of how intertextuality might be understood in terms of two continuums, regarding form and function i. Finally, it is relevant to emphasize the need to change the still prevailing dichotomized perspective that 'texts are for reading' x 'images are for seeing'.
With the presence of increasingly multisemiotic texts in contemporary culture, it is important to pay attention not only to their verbal elements, but also to all other components images, sounds, etc. This is the only way to realize an integral and appropriate interpretation of text and the different ways how it dialogues with other texts socially circulating.
Intertextualidade e intericonicidade. Acesso em: 10 mar. Heterogeneidade s enunciativa s. Celene M. Paulo Bezerra. Michel Lahud e Yara Frateschi Vieira. Intertextualidade: como os textos se apoiam em outros textos.
Judith Hoffnagel Coord. Guy Bourdin: A message for you. Accordingly, it has developed intertextual theory and analysis along different lines than literary studies considering how modern practices of scientific citation developed, how students learn to position their work within the literature of their fields, and how citations are structured within the differing genres of specific professional fields.
Irwin laments that intertextuality has eclipsed allusion as an object of literary study while lacking the latter term's clear definition. By contrast, in A Theory of Parody Hutcheon notes parody always features an author who actively encodes a text as an imitation with critical difference.
The Australian media scholar John Fiske has made a distinction between what he labels 'vertical' and 'horizontal' intertextuality. Horizontal intertextuality denotes references that are on the 'same level' i. The latter signifies the interrelationship of discursive features in a text, such as structure, form, or genre. Constitutive Intertextuality is also referred to interdiscursivity ,  though, generally interdiscursivity refers to relations between larger formations of texts.
Related concepts[ edit ] Linguist Norman Fairclough states that "intertextuality is a matter of recontextualization ". For instance, Adam Hodges has studied how White House officials recontextualized and altered a military general's comments for political purposes, highlighting favorable aspects of the general's utterances while downplaying the damaging aspects.
Allusion[ edit ] While intertextuality is a complex and multileveled literary term, it is often confused with the more casual term 'allusion'. Allusion is a passing or casual reference; an incidental mention of something, either directly or by implication. It is also seen as accidental, however, as they are normally phrases that are so frequently or casually used, that the true significance of the words is not fully appreciated.
Allusion is most often used in conversation, dialogue or metaphor. He never achieved particular success in anything unlike his wife or his 'father', Colonel Unwin, or his stepfather, who made a fortune in plastics or his mother, who was a singer. Quite on the contrary: Bill is a 'loser figure', albeit in a literal, dramatic sense after the loss of all of his family.
He admits that he is 'the dowdy, forgotten moth' Even in the most dramatic situations, he appears only as a voyeur, a helpless witness, a victim or a mere chronicler. However, the novel puts him in the privileged place of I-narrator and protagonist.
It seems that this potential for the special, the outstanding, is added to the weak figure through the pre-texts and that the figure of Bill Unwin can be interpreted as a void filled with hypotexts, a blank onto which pre-texts are being projected. He is, in a way, the 'produit combinatoire' Barthes 74 of - in this case above all, obligatory - hypotexts.
To go once more back to Shakespeare's play, it is also worth pointing out that Bill unites the figures of Hamlet, Polonius and Horatio. On one occasion, he uses the words of Polonius to interpret Katherine Potter's advances towards him 85 and once characterizes Matthew Pierce whom he usually views as 'just another disillusioned idealist, an over-reactive Hamlet type' - thus establishing a kind of Hamlet-triad recruited from three different texts as 'prating Polonius' However closely-linked the figure of Bill is to that of Hamlet Polonius, Horatio , he is also distanced from this model in the course of the novel, especially when he discovers that Sam, or Sam's relationship with Bill's mother, very probably was not the decisive cause of Colonel Unwin's suicide, and that he was always wrong in seeking his revenge as he did.
That Bill's real father is yet another person, a nameless train-driver, carries the story further away from the Shakespearian pre-text. Bill cannot 'fool' the reader, or indeed himself, with a Hamlet identification; the evoking of Hamlet in this place rather stresses the difference between the two texts.
Characters are perhaps the main focus in Swift's novels: 'Over all, though, towers Swift's interest in his characters' confessions [ This is necessary as there is little or no action in the novel: in fact, the only consistent action is that of remembrance. Remembering his life and his losses is for Bill a form of case history, of anamnesis, which will gradually lead to the healing of his wounds.
The plays introduce some forward movement into the novel; the intertextual references to them promise the reader that there is as similar structure of beginning, middle and ending in this seemingly immobile, paralysed story - paralysed as is its teller. Bernard The hypotexts assume the function of shaping the novel. They establish meaning s by evoking common features, such as the similarities between Bill and Hamlet, as well as by setting themselves against the hypertext.
The shaping process takes place on every level of the novel: figures, plot and narrative. Both Bill's and Matthew's stories are marked by the love for their wives, particularly in the case of Bill whose wife Ruth, a famous actress, had been the centre of his life until her death.
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Learn the writing methods of great writers. Discover the secrets of great writers.The grammar checker checks and corrects all common errors all is on Main Street. In this sense, hence, Marilyn's exuberant resume singing Diamonds Are a Girl's Best Friend is already a writing of the Western culture's social memory, thus constituting a founding discourse. But now I know he didn't' There writing, however, some issues Figurative words for esl essay unsolved, raised here as a provocation for possible future debates. Remembering some basic principles for academic essay writing will the main resource, since it contents a more full account of the trial of Socrates and his words the American political system.
Despite having his images printed in various international publications for over thirty years, the French photographer remains unknown to the larger audiences. Hence we can see the importance of having selected, for this paper, examples from an artist with extensive videographic work. Both are reluctant to act and to speak openly about matters, the common topic of the protagonist's assassinated father being just one example despite the fact that Bill's father committed suicide, he himself believed that Sam induced the suicide and thus views Sam as a murderer until shortly before the latter's death, when he learns about his true parentage.
It checks and corrects practically all errors found in writing. We can come to the conclusion that there is an imagetic approach between the video Cherish Madonna, and the short film At land Deren, , since both display similar forms: black and white photography, the protagonist's identical costumes, similar body movements and settings a beach, the ocean, waves , etc. Acesso em: 27 out. Remove unused language files for applications and your system Mac, helping free up masses of disk space.
The goal of his e-book English Harmony is to help non-native English speakers change their whole outlook on life and the way they perceive things when they speak English. Based on the choice and discussion of Madonna's music video clips, it was possible to make a 'didactic' analysis of how intertextuality might be understood in terms of two continuums, regarding form and function i. The video is, therefore, in the quadrant 2 of Graphic 5. In the famous blog "Madonna Scrapbook", Whacker noticed the similarity between the two productions Figure 6.
The story's point of departure is obviously its end, as the narrator gives the reader to understand: 'These are, I should warn you, the words of a dead man' 1. A typical romance feature is the postponing of an end, or a solution. Report errors in this content Q8 Arrange the body of the employment application letter. This means that romance always happens 'in between' between the initial problem which motivates the quest, and the [happy] ending and is therefore related to the concept of intertextuality which views the space between hypertext and hypotext as the scene of intertextuality. There is a deep satisfaction in being able to speed read and understand what you read. Fabiana Komesu Coord.
In this sense, Dominique Maingueneau , p. By using certain secret methods to design ads, anyone can easily triple the response they get to their newspaper advertising. Michael Riffaterre claims that a hypotext can always be assumed when the reader finds 'ungrammaticalities' in the text Riffaterre The other criterion to observe the intertextual relationships regards the function performed by each intertextuality occurrence.
Whereas a redaction critic would use such intertextuality to argue for a particular order and process of the authorship of the books in question, literary criticism takes a synchronic view that deals with the texts in their final form, as an interconnected body of literature. A disciplinaridade dos corpos: o sentido em revista. However, with a closer analysis of these works, it is possible to perceive a flagrant sliding of meaning between those two discourses, especially regarding the female identity built by Madonna in her video.