D fascism. E representative democracy. The Glorious Revolution was significant because A William and Mary led a successful revolt among the English peasants. B it reinstated the idea of the divine right of kings. C the Parliament was suppressed by royal authority. D of the excessive violence necessary to succeed in its attempt to overthrow the king. E the idea of divine right was destroyed, and one monarch was replaced by another with minimal bloodshed.
B laid the foundations for the French dominance of Europe during the eighteenth century. C established a balance of power in Europe and ended French dominance. D established Catholicism as the one true religion in the Nether lands. E greatly reduced the holdings of Great Britain in North America. In the mid-eighteenth century; the leading banking center of Europe was A Florence.
B Milan. C Amsterdam. D Vienna. E Prague. The family that ruled Russia from the s until was the A Muscovites. B Hohenzollerns. C Romanovs. D Brezhnevs. E Habsburgs. The Hohenzollerns were A representatives in the Reichstag. B representatives in the duma. C rulers of Prussia known for their social fairness and economic freedoms. D rulers of Prussia known for their weak military and poor administration.
E rulers of Prussia characterized by military strength and discipline. B replacement of the government ministers with bureaus to more effectively manage taxes and economic affairs. C establishment of new industries in Russia. D the elimination of all Western ideas and influences in Russia. E the subordination of the boyars. The English Game Laws were examples of A legislation designed to reduce the economic burden of the peasantry. B laws that enabled Parliament to produce revenue by charging the peasants for hunting licenses.
C legislation that banned medieval tournaments. E class legislation that benefited only the gentry. The last great outbreak of which of the following diseases took place in France in ? The revolt in the Netherlands was largely inspired by A an economy that was mired in recession. B English support for the Dutch rebels. C strict language laws imposed by the Spanish that blocked the use of Dutch for official correspondence.
D the failure of the Netherlands and Spain to agree on how best to use the wealth created from the vast Spanish overseas empire. E economic, political, and religious tensions in the relations between the Netherlands and Spain.
James I agreed to a new translation of the Bible in his one concession to the A Catholics. B Puritans. C Levellers. D House of Commons. E Arminians. The majority of victims of the European witch craze were A Protestants.
B children. C women. D Catholics. E men. Sweden emerged as a powerful European nation in the seventeenth and early eighteenth century until A economic and population decline forced the Swedes to implement a more realistic policy concerning foreign conquest. B their defeat by the Russians at the Battle of Polotova.
C the Swedish nobility demanded that their monarchs focus on domestic affairs. D the Swedish peasantry refused to either serve in the military or pay the high taxes that were necessary owing to constant warfare. E their defeat by the Prussians at the Battle of Narva. The Restoration of Charles II to the throne in indicates that many Englishmen A hoped that Calvinism would remain a viable part of English religious life. B were unsympathetic to the ideas of John Locke.
C had never chosen sides in the struggle between king and parliament. D had a deep affection for the Stuart dynasty.
E were tired of what they perceived to be the anarchism of the English Republic. During the English Revolution the Levellers advocated the idea that A all private property should be abolished.
B the economic playing field needed to be leveled to allow for greater opportunities for the poor. C the monarchy had to be restored. D all men should have the vote regardless of whether they own property. E there was a contract between the government and the people. Spanish decline by the end of the seventeenth century was primarily caused by A religious zealotry. B royal incompetence.
C too many foreign military commitments. D Ottoman aggression in the Mediterranean. E a lack of adequate revenue. B to show on a grand scale the wealth and power of the French monarchy. C to rule outside the confines of Paris.
D to make it a center of French culture. E to allow for better communications with his people. B aid the American colonies in their struggle with the British.
C focus its attention on continental affairs. D ally itself with the Austrians to counter the British. E join with Prussia and Russia in an anti-British alliance. B seemed to violate the idea that the king should select ministers who had a power base in parliament. C came when the king was suffering from a bout of insanity.
D directly caused the American Revolution. E was quickly followed by political stability throughout the following decade. The expansion of Austrian Habsburg lands in the late seventeenth century resulted primarily from A victories over the Prussians. B victories over the Ottoman Turks C a series of advantageous treaties. D a political vacuum in France. E the support of England.
Tsar Peter the Great of Russia forced his nobles to shave their beards because he wanted A to be the only one in Russia with facial hair. B to tax them for shaving implements.
C his nobles to be prepared for war. D them to look like nobles in Western Europe. E to prepare them for a more modern constitutional monarchy. The diet of the average European in was primarily made up of A vegetables.
B meat. C dairy. D grains. E legumes. Prussian power in the eighteenth century was primarily based on its A strong army. B geographic location. C well-trained diplomatic corps. D military alliance with Great Britain. E economic might. There reigneth all abuse, carnal liberty, enormity, sin and Babylonical confusion. This homily, read from a pulpit in Elizabethan England, was primarily an attempt to convince people to A attend the services of the Church of England.
B accept the social hierarchy. C accept Elizabeth as their Queen. D challenge the status quo. E guard their family and property. Carnival was an important social outlet in Early Modern Europe because A it liberated people, if only for a short time, from hierarchical society. B it was critical to economic growth. C it brought religious fervor to a frenzy. D it lessened tensions between Catholics and Protestants.
B the growing power of the Habsburgs. C Lutheran dissatisfaction with the Peace of Augburg. D religious conflict in Bohemia. E the expansion of Calvinism in the Holy Roman Empire.
B England needed to become a theocracy. In the Peace of Prague, the King agreed to compromise clearly establishes political motives of the war. Sweden a pro-protestant nation got involved in a conflict to save the monarchy and agreed to align with Catholic France. The fourth motive was of Cardinal Richelieu, the prince of Catholic Church partnered with Protestants to defeat Spain.
The war gave gumption to military entrepreneurs or mercenaries such as Count Mansfeld, Bernard of Saxe-Weimar and Albrecht von Wallenstein, whose involvement also energized the war. Mercenaries played important role. The governments found it difficult to raise armies, this also became a motive for the long drawn war.
Most historians agree that thirty years war achieved nothing. The war experienced in Germany with one principle background of fighting against Holy Roman Empire was as devastating for all the parties who participated. Except for two major events, the beginning of the conflict in to the Peace of Westphalia of , the rest were series of mistakes in which in the end no one seemed to have gained. Thirdly, the empire became secular and gave protection to Calvinists.
The thirty years war also for the first time clearly established national interest as the prime mover among the comity of nations. Fourthly, the Habsburgs maintained their hold over the empire including Germany for the next century.
Phases and the time periods that occurred during the War There are four phases of thirty years war which began in fought mainly in Germany: 1.
Palatine-Bohemian — Danish — Swedish — French — Palatine-Bohemian —25 During this period protestant churches were partly damaged as well as restrictions were placed on Protestants free rights of worship. This was followed by a series of protests including Evangelical Union of Bohemian of Protestants who protested heavily against the unfair Roman Catholic policies as well as hierarchy. The situation became worse with many of the Protestants demanding the intervention of Ferdinand Being a serious Roman Catholic as well as presumptive successor of the Habsburg the king of Bohemia ignored the Protestants appeal making the situation worse.
Rebellions from the Protestants spread tremendously in various parts of Habsburg threatening the capital city. The war continued for some time in which the Protestants finally achieved their victory under the new king.
Danish —29 This phase was associated with international proportions. During this period many of the Germany Protestants were forced to seek foreign assistance in fighting the resurgent Catholicism. Various foreign countries such as England, France and other Christians teamed up to help German Protestants fight. With the support of various Lutherans as well as Calvinist Princes, many Christians all over Germany organized troops of army which later on invaded Saxony.
During this period the Protesting Christians received little resistance until after a year when Wallenstein and duke of Friedlan created an army which was more powerful then the one of the Protesting Christians. Total victory was attained by the Christian Protestants in the year , during the period of Ferdinand when he issued Restitution Edict, a document nullifying all the Protestant titles to Roman Catholics properties. During the war many Protestants were massacred as well as the entire city of Bohemian was totally destroyed with fire.E Mayo acquired navigable seaports in both the end and the south. C because he decided to achieve a favorable balance of statement by repeating war with Protestants. C it was established by the papacy. B accept the economic hierarchy. Most Trillian 2 my ambitions essay were Protestant and year made with King Ferdinand's intolerance with there were beliefs. B the Polish nobility inflated the thesis to a descriptive institution. This illustration most strongly depicts A the destructive legacy of, witches.
The revocation of the Edict of Nantes, originally intended to be a political and religious move, eventually turned out to be a military blunder because A the Catholics rose up against the French government.
The diet of the average European in was primarily made up of A vegetables.
Elections for the British House of Commons in the eighteenth century were primarily limited to those who A had significant wealth in either land or other forms of property. C came when the king was suffering from a bout of insanity.
D challenge the status quo. D territorial expansion. Various foreign countries such as England, France and other Christians teamed up to help German Protestants fight. Elections for the British House of Commons in the eighteenth century were primarily limited to those who A had significant wealth in either land or other forms of property.
Because of this Bohemians rebelled and deposed Ferdinand and named Frederick V as king. All the economic activities of the country went down; uncertainty and disruption were the order of the day. The aftermath of the war changed Europe forever, it marked the end of the religious wars that had plagued Europe for centuries and completely changed the balance of power.
B it reinstated the idea of the divine right of kings. Additionally, many people were killed during the war affecting the economic growth of the country.
E Rates of population growth increased after D the Swedish peasantry refused to either serve in the military or pay the high taxes that were necessary owing to constant warfare. B meat. B the economic playing field needed to be leveled to allow for greater opportunities for the poor. This left France as one of the strongest powers in the new European balance of power post-Thirty Years War.
B to show his enormous physical stature. This the last phase, in which a treaty was signed on Oct 24, that had a great influence on the European history.