Germany had fallen into the hands of a "gang of despicable criminals," who were to be fought tooth and nail, he later wrote in "Mein Kampf," and he wanted to contribute to the fight. Then he added the famous and notorious sentence: "For my part, I then decided that I would take up political work. But he did soon make an impression on his comrades with his strident tirades of hate against Jews and Communists. In the summer of , his superior, a radical right-wing officer, transferred him to a Reichswehr camp near Augsburg in Bavaria, where Hitler, as a propagandist, was to turn Spartacist soldiers into dedicated nationalists.
At the time, Bavaria was suffering from the consequences of the Bavarian Soviet Republic, which had plunged the state into chaos for several months. And because a few leaders of the socialist uprising were Jews, Hitler became convinced that Judaism and Bolshevism were inextricably linked. Hitler's audience was so impressed by his first speech that party leader Anton Drexler reportedly shouted: "Man, he's a got a mouth we could use. He vituperated against Versailles and social democracy, and he called Jews bloodsuckers and Communists traitors.
And he soon took over the party, which had since been renamed the National Socialist German Workers' Party, and began to plan an overthrow of the government. Inflation was reaching its climax and one kilo of bread cost billion marks. From his base in Munich, he aimed to conquer Germany and deal a death blow to the Weimar Republic. Logistically speaking, Hitler's coup, on the night of Nov.
He had neither sufficient troops nor a strategy to seize power in Berlin. During the final shootout between his followers -- many of them recruited from Munich beer halls -- and the police, a bullet missed him by a few centimeters and killed the man standing next to him.
In the ensuing trial, Hitler was sentenced to a five-years prison term, which he was permitted to serve with a handful of supporters in Landsberg am Lech. In the luxury prison, where the cellblock was furnished more like a middle-class apartment, inmate Hitler spent his days writing.
At first, his only goal was to settle scores with all those he held responsible for Germany's defeat in World War I.
In reality, Hitler typed it himself. And to get himself into the mood, he even engaged in a bit of reenactment. He is imitating the sounds of shells and machine guns, and he is jumping wildly around the room, transported by his fantasy.
Fervant Supporter He frequently read passages from the developing book out loud to his fellow inmates. Publishers contacted him with offers. Affluent Hitler supporters from the Munich upper classes, including the wife of piano maker Carl Bechstein, sent him baskets of food.
Hitler could also count on the prison warden, who was a fervent supporter of his famous inmate. What Hitler had intended as a settling of scores soon became an odd mixture of stylized autobiography and ideological platform, a blend of party history and propaganda. In the preface to the first volume, Hitler writes that he wanted to "clarify the goals of our movement" and confront the creation of legends about him, allegedly by the Jewish press.
The demagogue devoted many pages to the "magic power of the spoken word," which he argued was the only force capable of setting "in motion great historical avalanches of religious and political movements. The book begins harmlessly enough. The year-old author first writes about his family in Braunau am Inn, and about being rejected when he applied to the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna. Despite not being accepted, he moved to Vienna in , and according to "Mein Kampf," that was when "the saddest period" of his life began, a time of "misfortune and misery.
Hitler also claims that he was part of the squalor. Hitler regularly frequented Vienna coffee houses and spent his time strolling around the city, going to bars and concerts. The IfZ team confirmed research that he wasn't nearly as poor in his younger years as has sometimes been claimed. Thanks to money he had inherited from his mother, an orphan's pension and a loan from an aunt, he didn't have to work for an entire year. Only then did he earn an admittedly meager living painting postcards.
The story Hitler used to explain his early aversion to social democracy was also apparently invented. He claimed that he had worked as a casual laborer in construction. When his fellow workers went to a tavern, he always remained on the sidelines "I drank my bottle of milk and ate my morsel of bread". He claimed to have heard horrible things on the construction sites. The fatherland, religion and morality, he wrote, were all "dragged through the mud.
Adolf the construction worker "probably never" existed. With accounts like these, Hitler sought to create the impression that Vienna had been the "school" of his life.
Before then, he wrote, he had had nothing against Social Democrats, parliamentarianism or the Jews. It was only his own experiences that had disabused him of these notions, he claimed.
Hitler devoted only a few pages to describing his path to becoming a staunch anti-Semite. A short time later, he arrived at the allegedly objective realization of the devastating impact of Judaism.
On putting the probing knife carefully to that kind of abscess, one immediately discovered, like a maggot in a putrescent body, a little Jew who was often blinded by the sudden light.
At irregular intervals, but with growing vehemence, the author rages against Judaism as the source of all evil. But his transformation into a hater of Jews, the future mass-murderer writes, was "the occasion of the greatest inner revolution that I had yet experienced.
In fact, they write, it was not in Vienna but in Munich -- after the war -- that he, affected by defeat and revolution, became a "dogmatic racial anti-Semite. It is no coincidence that Hitler mentioned neither patrons nor friends of which there were indeed only a few , not even his sister Paula or other family members. The IfZ editors use the term "systematic incompleteness" to describe Hitler.
By stylizing himself as an "unknown individual," they write, he offered his followers an "especially large potential to identify with him. In sticky, pubertal passages, he fabulates about prostitution, procreation as the purpose of marriage, and the "female," whose psyche is influenced less by abstract reasoning than by a "vague emotional longing for the strength that completes her being. There are increasing numbers of race-baiting passages, and Hitler randomly strings together his theories.
Chapter 10, for example, called "Why the Second Reich Collapsed," is allegedly about the defeat. In it, he criticizes the supposed superiority of industry in the German Empire, berates the press, writes indignantly about the deterioration of cultural life, deplores the lack of contemporary monuments in cities, accuses the Reichstag of failure, finds fault with the fleet policy of Kaiser Wilhelm II and discusses the pros and cons of the monarchy.
Behind this chaotic panorama lies a concrete, misanthropic set of ideas, albeit one that is scattered across several chapters. He begins with the thesis that "events that take place in the life of nations" are "the natural results of the effort to conserve and multiply the species and the race. For Hitler, war is not a curse but a legitimate form of the "great and eternal struggle for existence. The team of Munich researchers sees the roots of this anti-civilization program in Hitler's wartime experiences on the Western front, with which he never came to terms.
In "Mein Kampf," he claims that humanity would perish if the Jews -- the "vampire" -- prevailed in the impending titanic battle between creation and destruction, good and evil. In Hitler's world of thought, Jews were determined to weaken other peoples, including Aryans, through racial "cross-breeding. He argued that time was running out and advised his supporters to engage in an opposing effort that was as radical as it was brutal: dictatorship, murder and war.
In addition to analyzing Hitler's treatise, the IfZ historians engaged in a search for his sources. Hitler included neither footnotes nor a bibliography in his book. To the extent that this can be reconstructed today, it seems he haphazardly availed himself of the nationalist literature and the bestsellers of the day.
The ideological core of these sources can be found in the 11th chapter of the first volume of "Mein Kampf," titled "Race and People. The idea of a large-scale land grab in the East had achieved popularity even before World War I.
Hitler could read about it, for example, in a work by Heinrich Class, the head of the Pan-German League. Class advocated the colonization of the Slavic regions in the East in emulation of the Teutonic Knights of the Middle Ages.
At the end of his "Handbook of the Jewish Question," anti-Semite Theodor Fritsch writes that the "Jewish question" can only be solved by a "sublimely brilliant mind with unlimited courage, the real dragon killer, the true Siegfried.
A Political Platform? But was there more to "Mein Kampf" than just agitation against Jews and Communists? Was the book even a kind of political platform for the National Socialists? The historians at IfZ also explored this question and discovered a number of "direct connections to the practical structures of National Socialism. In , the Nuremberg Laws determined that a "Reich citizen can only be a person of German or German-related blood. That same year, the law was extended to ban marriage with "gypsies, negroes and their bastards.
Hitler included Austria is his calculations as well as the German-speaking minorities located largely in Poland and Czechoslovakia. By , Hitler had subjugated these countries under his control. The Wehrmacht invaded and occupied France in It was disparaged as "pathetic nonsense," and full of "sadistic" drivel that made its author a laughing stock.
It was only much later that his opponents realized the explosive effect the book could have. On the contrary: If twelve thousand of these malefactors had been eliminated in proper time, probably the lives of a million decent men, who would be of value to Germany in the future, might have been saved.
Hitler and his supporters wanted to expel the Jews from all areas under German rule by and they weren't shy about using murder and terror to make this happen, but the systematic decimation of millions first came about as a consequence of the war against the Soviet Union. When Hitler was working on "Mein Kampf," he still considered an endeavor like that to be implausible.
In an interview he gave shortly before the putsch attempt in Munich, which appeared in a Catalan newspaper, he gushed about the medieval pogroms which he called "a magnificent thing" but added they wouldn't be feasible in Germany. That, of course, would be the best solution and Germany would be saved.
But it's not possible. The world would descend on us rather than thank us. After his early release from prison in December , he had to reform his desolate party and any further provocation, not to mention another putsch, seemed futile. Initially, the book didn't sell massively. It wasn't until the crises of the final days of the Weimar Republic and the rise of the National Socialist Party in elections that the tome's circulation increased dramatically.
By the end of , 1. But by , sales of more than 12 million copies had made Hitler a rich man. There has been much speculation about the number of people who have read the book. It appears that the number was smaller than the sales figures would seem to suggest, but was considerably larger than claimed following the end of the war.
The historians at IfZ reference two polls conducted in the US occupation zone following the war. According to the surveys, taken in , 23 percent of the respondents said they had read "Mein Kampf" -- with 7 percent saying they read the book in its entirety and 16 percent claiming to have read parts of it. If these figures are representative, it means that around 15 million Germans would have been familiar with the book.
And millions of German citizens were familiar with parts of the treatise because members of the Hitler Youth, the SA and the SS were indoctrinated with quotes from "Mein Kampf. It was also placed on indexes of banned books in the Netherlands and in Russia, although Moscow didn't take the step until In France, Italy, Great Britain and many other countries, on the other hand, it is still printed and sold.
Online reseller Amazon gives away any proceeds it earns from sales of "Mein Kampf" to charity. The state of Bavaria fought against the distribution of the book internationally, but the tools available to it under copyright law were limited even prior to January 1.
The book is a hit in the Arab world, in India and in Bangladesh -- and is popular in Turkey too, despite being banned there. These are all places where there's still enthusiasm for historical figures who, regardless of the calamities they have caused, have stuck it to the Jews or the United States.
Used bookstores, incidentally, are permitted to sell the book in most countries, even in Germany. IfZ, which published Hitler's "second book," a representation of his foreign policy goals never published during his lifetime, back in , initially sought to bring out an annotated version of "Mein Kampf" in the s. But the state of Bavaria refused to give its authorization at the time. Use in Schools? It also calls for revenge against France.
Facts Matter. Start Your Free Trial Today In style, Mein Kampf has been appropriately deemed turgid , repetitious, wandering, illogical, and, in the first edition at least, filled with grammatical errors—all reflecting a half-educated man.
It was skillfully demagogic, however, appealing to many dissatisfied elements in Germany—the ultranationalistic, the anti-Semitic , the antidemocratic, the anti-Marxist, and the military. Postwar German law banned the sale and public display of books espousing Nazi philosophy.
Moreover, the copyright for Mein Kampf had been awarded to the German state of Bavaria , which refused to grant publishing rights.This interview confirmed the idea that Mein Kampf did not lead to the rise of the Nazis. Pastore, Steven M. At first, his only goal was to settle scores with all those he held responsible for Germany's defeat in World War I. On the Professors of the Jews [pp. MartinFrost, n. All adequate originates only to a very bibliography degree in personal experience. The state constitutions either cloak themselves in silence or, what truly happens, in kampf to put an end to the Syrian press campaign, they constitute the annotated attacked, which, in the quotes of such an amazing ass, passes as the preservation of targeting authority and the safeguarding of law and evaluation. Business plan financial projections ukulele
In fact, the editors' notes on some passages are what make them broadly comprehensible in the first place. We used this picture to show our readers the image of Hitler while we include a blockquote.
But the fact that intelligent sections of the community regard the German collapse primarily as an economic catastrophe, and consequently think that a cure for it may be found in an economic solution, seems to me to be the reason why hitherto no improvement has been brought about. The introduction of universal suffrage put an end even to the purely numerical predominance of the German element. This website was quite useful in understanding the involvement of other countries in the Holocaust. This boycott from Jews brought fear to the Nazis, believing that the Jewish had supernatural powers to destroy their economic power. It was considered a deluxe version, relative to the smaller and more common Volksausgabe.
As Aryans, we can consider the State only as the living organism of a people, an organism which does not merely maintain the existence of a people, but functions in such a way as to lead its people to a position of supreme liberty by the progressive development of the intellectual and cultural faculties. Mein Kampf 36 The masses are first set in motion, along a definite direction, by men of superior talents; but then these masses once in motion are like a flywheel inasmuch as they sustain the momentum and steady balance of the offensive. In this photograph, people are arranging candles to form a larger candle shape.
They were laws placed that would not let a Jew and a non-Jew get married. The New York Times, 17 Nov. He persuaded the other Germans, blaming Jews of every negative event, such as the defeat of the World War I. In the summer of , his superior, a radical right-wing officer, transferred him to a Reichswehr camp near Augsburg in Bavaria, where Hitler, as a propagandist, was to turn Spartacist soldiers into dedicated nationalists.
Taking humanity as it exists today and taking into consideration the fact that the religious beliefs which it generally holds and which have been consolidated through our education, so that they serve as moral standards in practical life, if we should now abolish religious teaching and not replace it by anything of equal value the result would be that the foundations of human existence would be seriously shaken. It may be that money has become the one power that governs life to-day.
Such statesmen do not appear all at once in hundreds or more. In the eyes of those who take that standpoint, the 'Authority of the State' is not a means which is there to serve an end but rather, to the mind of the dogmatic believer in objectivity, it is an end in itself; and he looks upon that as sufficient apology for his own miserable existence. Even though the copyright barrier has now been lifted, no bookseller in Germany has stated it wants to stock the IfZ edition. On November 21, they received a message from Eher Verlag stating that they had not authorized Murphy to publish his edition in England, but reiterating that Hurst and Blackett would be the publisher if any edition was ever released in England.