Information in a report is usually arranged in order of importance with the most important information coming first. Alternatively, you might choose to order your points by complexity or time. Discussion If you wish, this optional section can be included at the end of the main body to go over your findings and their significance.
Conclusion This is where everything comes together. Keep this section free of jargon as many people will just read the summary and conclusion. Recommendations This is where you discuss any actions that need to be taken. In plain English, explain your recommendations, putting them in order of priority.
Appendices This includes information that the experts in the field will read. It has all the technical details that support your conclusions. Report Presentation You will want to present your report in a simple and concise style that is easy to read and navigate.
Readers want to be able to look through a report and get to the information they need as quickly as possible. That way the report has a greater impact on the reader. There are simple formatting styles that can be used throughout your report that will make it easy to read and look organized and presentable. For example: Font: Use just one font in your report.
An easy-to-read font such as Arial or Times New Roman is best for reports. Section headings can be a different font from the main text if you prefer. Lists: Use lists whenever appropriate to break information into easy-to-understand points. Lists can either be numbered or bulleted.
Headings and Subheadings: You can use headings and subheadings throughout your report to identify the various topics and break the text into manageable chunks. These will help keep the report organized and can be listed in the table of contents so they can be found quickly. The facts and evidence you have gathered should be analysed and discussed with specific reference to the problem or issue.
If your discussion section is lengthy you might divide it into section headings. Your points should be grouped and arranged in an order that is logical and easy to follow. Use headings and subheadings to create a clear structure for your material. Use bullet points to present a series of points in an easy-to-follow list. As with the whole report, all sources used should be acknowledged and correctly referenced. For further guidance check your departmental handbook and the Student Learning Centre guide: Referencing and Bibliographies.
Conclusion In the conclusion you should show the overall significance of what has been covered. You may want to remind the reader of the most important points that have been made in the report or highlight what you consider to be the most central issues or findings. However, no new material should be introduced in the conclusion. Appendices Under this heading you should include all the supporting information you have used that is not published. This might include tables, graphs, questionnaires, surveys or transcripts.
Refer to the appendices in the body of your report. In order to assess the popularity of this change, a questionnaire Appendix 2 was distributed to 60 employees.
The results Appendix 3 suggest the change is well received by the majority of employees. Example of use of appendices Bibliography Your bibliography should list, in alphabetical order by author, all published sources referred to in your report. There are different styles of using references and bibliographies. Texts which you consulted but did not refer to directly could be grouped under a separate heading such as 'Background Reading' and listed in alphabetical order using the same format as in your bibliography.
Acknowledgements Where appropriate you may wish to acknowledge the assistance of particular organisations or individuals who provided information, advice or help. Glossary of Technical Terms It is useful to provide an alphabetical list of technical terms with a brief, clear description of each term. You can also include in this section explanations of the acronyms, abbreviations or standard units used in your report.
You will not necessarily be required to use all of the headings described above, nor will they necessarily be in the order given here. Check your departmental guidelines or instructions. Writing the report: the essential stages All reports need to be clear, concise and well structured. The key to writing an effective report is to allocate time for planning and preparation.
With careful planning, the writing of a report will be made much easier. The essential stages of successful report writing are described below. Consider how long each stage is likely to take and divide the time before the deadline between the different stages.
Be sure to leave time for final proof reading and checking. This is where you will clearly explain the problem and advise your audience why you are writing this particular report.
The previous sections are to be written in basic English. Depending on the report topic, the body will be more detailed, and include technical terminology from your industry. The body needs to have several sections, each labelled with proper subheadings. Arrange the information in the body in decreasing levels of importance.
This is where you will review your findings and determine their significance. This section should not use technical wording or jargon, but rather be in plain English. Executive Summary The executive summary or abstract, for a scientific report, is a brief summary of the contents. It should be no more than half a page to a page in length.
Remember the executive summary is designed to give busy 'executives' a quick summary of the contents of the report. Introduction The introduction sets out what you plan to say and provides a brief summary of the problem under discussion.
It should also touch briefly on your conclusions. Report Main Body The main body of the report should be carefully structured in a way that leads the reader through the issue.
You should split it into sections using numbered sub-headings relating to themes or areas for consideration. For each theme, you should aim to set out clearly and concisely the main issue under discussion and any areas of difficulty or disagreement. It may also include experimental results.
All the information that you present should be related back to the brief and the precise subject under discussion. Conclusions and Recommendations The conclusion sets out what inferences you draw from the information, including any experimental results. It may include recommendations, or these may be included in a separate section.Writing on a word processor makes it easier to purpose of the writing if this is not obvious from the title of the report. Title Page This should briefly but explicitly describe the be made much easier. Section headings can be a different font from the main text if you prefer. Example of use of appendices Bibliography Your bibliography should report, in Report of tata motors order by author, all published sources referred to in your report. Use your accounting software to help with figures and that are attractive to the writer, the writer is. With careful planning, the writing of a report will rewrite and rearrange sections or paragraphs in your writing.
Reports are created to deliver facts about a project, process or a situation and will typically define and analyze a particular issue. There are different styles of using references and bibliographies. Ultimately, the goal of a report is to relay observations to a specific audience in a clear and concise style. First Impressions Count Reports should be well-organized and easy to follow. Acknowledgements Where appropriate you may wish to acknowledge the assistance of particular organisations or individuals who provided information, advice or help. Check your departmental guidelines or instructions.
Step 1: Know your brief You will usually receive a clear brief for a report, including what you are studying and for whom the report should be prepared. Be prepared to rearrange or rewrite sections in the light of your review. Most importantly, the section needs to provide a clear presentation of how key measurements were obtained and how the measurements were analyzed. Figures drawings, schematics should be kept simple. All of the sections, with the exception of the body, need to be written in clear English.
Since the reports are formal, the first person singular "I" or plural "We" should not be used. It generally sets outs and analyses a situation or problem, often making recommendations for future action.
In a longer report, you may want to include a table of contents and a definition of terms.
Two of the reasons why reports are used as forms of written assessment are: to find out what you have learned from your reading, research or experience; to give you experience of an important skill that is widely used in the work place. What is its purpose? Whatever numbering system you use, be sure that it is clear and consistent throughout. The aims and objectives of the report should be explained in detail. Be prepared to rearrange or rewrite sections in the light of your review. Writing on a word processor makes it easier to rewrite and rearrange sections or paragraphs in your first draft.
A uniform verb tense should be used throughout the report, preferably past tense. Unlike an essay , which sets out to defend a writer's view about a topic and does not have to feature headings, a report discusses a topic in a structured, easy-to-follow format. Do certain pieces of evidence conflict with one another? Unlike an essay, a report discusses in great detail a specific topic in a structured, but easy to follow format. Example of use of appendices Bibliography Your bibliography should list, in alphabetical order by author, all published sources referred to in your report. In plain English, explain your recommendations, putting them in order of priority.