Although leaders help to create and manage culture, culture evolves through a group learning process and may take on a life of its own.
Schein, , p. Group members come to share beliefs and values as they work together. Once the belief or value is taken for granted, it is nonnegotiable and therefore becomes an assumption. Cotter-Lockard: Schein Mapped to Wilber 4 Adaptation and Internal Integration Schein references Weick , stating that we develop patterns of beliefs, behaviors and rituals to adapt to and make sense of the world.
Socialization A key aspect of stabilizing and inculcating culture is the process of teaching these patterns of beliefs, behaviors and rituals to new members of the group.
In the second edition of Organizational Culture and Leadership , Schein claims that the founder or entrepreneur imposes his or her assumptions and beliefs, thus establishing the culture of the organization. In the third edition , Schein adds a second method for establishing culture through less structured interaction within leaderless groups, opening up a discussion of culture development within non-hierarchical organization models.
Other Characteristics of Culture Cotter-Lockard: Schein Mapped to Wilber 5 Schein provides three other characteristics of culture: structural stability, depth and breadth. Structural stability is related to group identity; when a member of the group leaves, the group identity remains intact. Culture exists within the deepest part of ourselves and all aspects of group functioning are embedded in the culture.
Levels of Culture Schein describes three levels of culture: 1 artifacts, 2 espoused beliefs and values, and 3 underlying assumptions. Each level goes progressively deeper and therefore is harder to excavate. Artifacts represent the external physical manifestation of culture. Examples of artifacts include vision, values and mission statements, organization charts, the physical workspace and executive offices, and dress codes.
Schein includes organizational myths, legends, ceremonies and communication styles in this level of culture.
Espoused beliefs and values are a result of group learning, in which values and beliefs are tested by applying them to solve problems and accomplish group tasks. When a belief is tested and it fails to solve a problem, it is discarded and a new belief is adopted. Over time, a belief or value shows reliable results when applied to accomplishing tasks or solving problems and is shared by the group. The deepest level of culture is the set of underlying assumptions; nonnegotiable unconscious values and beliefs.
Schein, similar to Aaronson contends that we will take extraordinary measures, such as denial, blaming, and distorting our memories to preserve our underlying assumptions in order to prevent cognitive dissonance. That is why organizational change is so difficult; it requires that we excavate the subconscious to bring underlying assumptions to light, examine them and then challenge them. Schein uses the metaphor of cultural DNA to represent this deeply embedded set of underlying assumptions.
Any process that challenges underlying assumptions will cause distress and anxiety among group members. This requires understanding if the organization is to be capable of new learning and the ability to address the anxiety resulting from giving up cherished Cotter-Lockard: Schein Mapped to Wilber 7 assumptions.
Examining Different Types of Assumptions The preceding section described the structures of culture, as defined by Schein. He then moves deeper into assumptions about reality, truth, time, space, human nature and relationships.
Assumptions are associated with each of these aspects of the organization. Goals usually address shorter term, more tactical problems and therefore, a different set of assumptions may pertain to goals than to the mission and strategy. The means or how an organization accomplishes its mission, strategy and goals are also shaped by a set of assumptions.
The way in which financial and human resource systems are designed, for example may be very tightly defined and controlled in one organization and very loose in another. The focus placed on different functions within an organization will also reveal assumptions about the relative importance of each function.
Schein mentions our natural tendency toward valuing territory and how we build assumptions around protecting our turf as we conduct organizational activities. For example, my former company usually based promotions on how many people a person managed.
Therefore, managers were unwilling to give up groups during reorganization efforts aimed at aligning business functions. With regard to measurement, organizations may adopt a variety of assumptions, such as top down micro-management of results, completely delegated decision-making and decisions by the numbers.
Finally, organizations make assumptions about appropriate ways to understand and solve problems. Organizations may respond differently to failures. Other companies will fire the department manager after a failure. Still other organizations will go through a Six Sigma Pande, process to analyze how to re- design processes and improve quality. Schein contends that crises provide the opportunity to reveal and understand underlying assumptions related to problem solving and remediation.
A key concept is the idea of creating common paths to interpret our experience within an organization.
Schein contends that we have a threshold of tolerance to stimulation and uncertainty. An important aspect of culture development is to come to common definitions of what is real, important, and the truth. In a science-based culture, there is an underlying assumption that there is an explanation for everything, we just need to discover and measure it. Schein discusses how organizations develop stories and myths and eventually form an ideology similar to those developed by religions, for example, The HP Way Packard, et al.
Reality, Truth, Time and Space Schein references several studies to conclude that ethnic and national cultures have different assumptions about what is real, how truth is determined, and concepts of time and space.
Decision making is relegated to one or the other realm of reality. Conflict and confusion ensues when an organization has difficulty in determining which decisions belong in which realm. Add individual reality to the mix and you find the shifting sands of what an organization defines as reality. I wonder why he stops at scientific truth when there are many other definitions of truth.
Even the definitions of information and knowledge may differ within organizational sub-groups and across ethnic cultures.
Organizations can be oriented toward the past, present, near future and far future. However, different national and ethnic groups also have different time orientations. Time can be viewed as monochronic a linear series of activities or as polychronic cyclical or simultaneous activities. The U. African, Middle Eastern and Southern European cultures view time polychronically.
Time can also be used to establish status. For example, one of my former managers regularly had a line of people waiting for hours to meet with him. In some Latin cultures, an important person may walk right up to the front of a long line and demand his turn — those waiting in line accept this behavior without complaint due to the status of the person at the front of the line.
Communication problems erupt when different sub-groups within an organization have different time horizons on a project. However, the sales and marketing organization may have a shorter time expectation because they are trying to be first to market. One interesting point cited Jaques, , by Schein is that a competent manager functions according to appropriate time horizons for their managerial level.
A first line supervisor should be viewing his work on a very short day or week time horizon, whereas a senior manager should view her time horizon in terms of years. Human Nature and Relationships Schein comments on several types of assumptions that different cultures carry about human nature.
For example, humans are fundamentally good, neutral or evil, depending on the culture. Cultures may assume humans are or are not capable of redemption and overcoming limitations.
Motivation theories during the past century are based on different sets of assumptions. People will be motivated by satisfaction of their needs, based on where they reside in the hierarchy. In his Theory X — Theory Y framework, McGregor defined two types of managers, each operating from a different set of assumptions. These assumptions translate to levels of trust and empowerment in how these managers treat their employees.
Schein concludes that current motivation theories recognize the complexity of human nature. Therefore human nature cannot be generalized by one set of underlying assumptions.
It follows that context determines how humans will behave and perform in organizations. Some organizations assume a doing orientation, others assume a being orientation and some assume a being-in-becoming orientation. A doing orientation assumes human dominion over nature, that human nature is perfectible and we should approach reality from a pragmatist view. The being orientation assumes a fatalist view and that we are subservient to nature. The being-in-becoming orientation seeks to achieve balance, harmony and unity with nature.
We should work towards self-realization through mindfulness, understanding and practices such as meditation, focusing on who we are rather than what we can do. Schein contends there are four basic problems that individuals within organizations must address. Our assumptions about human relationships will determine how we solve these problems. These problems are: 1 identity and role; 2 power and influence; 3 needs and goals; and 4 acceptance and intimacy Schein, , p.
For example, in my former company, roles were well defined and we used a role-description template to help individuals regularly Cotter-Lockard: Schein Mapped to Wilber 13 revisit their roles and associated activities. People identified as belonging to specific project teams aligned with business divisions.
Power and influence came with job titles. However, an individual could exert influence without having an authoritative title because they had significant expertise in a topic. We took care to help employees find roles that met their personal needs and goals in addition to the needs of the company. Different groups within the company allowed varying levels of acceptance and intimacy.
Loyalty and tenure were key values and it took a long time to be accepted into a group. Cultures may be individualistic or collectively oriented. They may assume a clear distinction between aspects of work and family, or not. Cultures have different assumptions regarding male and female roles, as well as how ethnic, racial, religious and age groups are treated.
Cotter-Lockard: Schein Mapped to Wilber 14 Additionally, each holon has an external and an internal aspect. The upper two quadrants are individual characteristics and the bottom two are collective.
The left two quadrants are internally focused and the right two quadrants are externally focused. A holon that transcends its level still includes the holons at previous levels. The resulting holon has a greater level of complexity and is considered to be deeper than holons at prior levels.
Increasing depth means increasing complexity or levels of evolution. If a holon at a lower level of the holarchy is destroyed, the holons at higher levels dependent on this holon are also destroyed. Therefore, Cotter-Lockard: Schein Mapped to Wilber 15 each individual holon contains attributes of all four quadrants.
From a human development perspective, this quadrant reflects levels of developmental maturity, intentionality and consciousness. Wilber b defines a developmental line which begins with prehension and ascends through several levels to nondual consciousness Figure 2 only displays up to the vision-logic stage. Her model is based on increasing complexity in meaning making and the ego stages are grouped into pre-conventional, conventional, post-conventional, and post-postconventional transpersonal categories see Figure 3.
The earlier Conformist stage is not conscious of the individual self. Reasoning, science and choice are important to people at this stage. Pluralists challenge conventions and belief systems. They value multiple perspectives and recognize the human tendency toward self-deception. Relativity and context are important at this stage.
The Strategist has a full understanding of the interconnections of life. Interdependence, integrity, principles and the dignity of all people are very important to the Strategist. This is the first stage that appreciates and embraces all of the earlier stages. However, the true scope of the culture still remains hidden beneath the surface. Pierce, J, G. Figure 2. The mission of Southwest Airlines is dedicated to the highest quality of Customer Service delivered with a sense of warmth, friendliness, individual pride, and Company Spirit.
Southwest, The culture at Southwest Airlines is visible in many ways. Norms are informal ground rules that provide guidelines concerning appropriate and inappropriate behavior in a group.
Calvary, W. Lauer, C. This slogan somewhat promotes a sense of humor that Southwest Airlines have always had that approach in an informal way Organizational Dynamics, Southwest Airlines created many rites to do with employees.
Once employees are hired, they are immediately given a celebration greeting into the company Tyler, Through the rite in the Southwest Airlines, it shows the warmth and friendly culture in the company. There are many stories had been share in the Southwest Airlines, such as successful events and failure experiences from employees. Racelis, A ,D. First, Southwest Airlines focus on the situations, issues, or behavior, not on the person.
People in the company should find a solution instead of judging others. Second, maintain the self confidence and self-esteem of others. Southwest Airlines offer employees not only the internal training programs, but also provide employees with external training whenever they want to advance their careers. The event takes place at Headquarters in Dallas, where employees with good performance will be awarded by president Colleen Barrett.
West, R. The winning Team holds one of the highest honors at Southwest Airlines. Therefore, Southwest Airlines won the hearts and minds of their employees. Deal, T. Third, to maintain positive relationships with employees, colleagues and managers, Southwest Airlines focuses on a team environment that enables employees embrace their connections with one another.
Southwest Airlines has always placed little emphasis on formal organizational company structure, that employees are given authority to make decisions and Supervisors view their subordinates as internal customers who deserve help in doing their jobs better.
Gittell, J. Southwest Airlines create an environment that combines humor with responsibility. Southwest Airlines places the highest importance in its selection process on employee that hire for attitude that based on their social skills.
There are many popular videos about the funny safety speech made by Southwest flight attendant that consists of rapping or singing when they present the safety rules such as Hilarious Southwest Airline Safety Presentation that is recently the most popular video on the internet. It shows that having fun in the working environment is an essential value of the company. Fourth, Southwest Airlines holds variety events in many fun loving ways to implicate their value.
The events convey beliefs of the fun and loving culture and made it become a tradition at Southwest Airlines. At the deepest level, basic assumptions are below our awareness. The assumptions that shape the organizational culture can be exposed by observing how employees interact and the decisions they make.
Qwabe, N. Southwest Airlines implicates no layoff policy. Southwest Airlines also has a long tradition of bridging the work divide by seeking to accommodate the needs of families through flexible scheduling and ensuring that managers do not devote too much time to the job at the expense of their families. First, the case of Southwest airlines shows that the company puts its employees in priority that they implement a no layoff policy.
Employees feel secure in their job, and enjoy a high level of compensation. In addition, Southwest Airlines sees employees as the greatest assets of the company. Southwest Airlines encourages employees to work with humor and responsibility, that happy working atmosphere not only greatly improve the efficiency of their work but also get recognized by customers. Indirect mechanisms do not influence the organizational culture directly however they are determinative.
This includes the mission and vision statement of a company, formal guidelines, corporate identity, rituals and design. They are the visible elements in the organization such as logos, architecture, structure, processes and corporate clothing.
These are not only visible to the employees but also visible and recognizable for external parties. Espoused Values This concerns standards, values and rules of conduct. How does the organization express strategies, objectives and philosophies and how are these made public? Problems could arise when the ideas of managers are not in line with the basic assumptions of the organization. Basic underlying assumptions The basic underlying assumptions are deeply embedded in the organizational culture and are experienced as self-evident and unconscious behaviour.
Assumptions are hard to recognize from within. The outer layer is fairly easy to adapt and easy to change. The deeper the layer, the harder it becomes to adjust it. Deeply embedded in the core of the onion we find the assumptions. Around the core we find the values.
The artefacts and symbols can be found in the outer layers of the onion and these can be changed more easily. The core of the onion is made up of assumptions.There are many stories had been share in the behavior, not on the person. First, Southwest Airlines focus on the situations, issues, or such as ways a company faced a crisis, fixing. Although Schein includes processes to unearth unconscious assumptions, these Southwest Airlines, such as successful events and failure experiences from employees.
It can range either be : autocratic, paternalistic, consultative, participative, delegative and abdicative. Because I have suppressed this shadow aspect of myself, I am blind to the true source of the anger. I think there would be more awareness of a group consciousness and how an individual aligns with it. Southwest Airlines create an environment that combines humor with responsibility.
There are many stories had been share in the Southwest Airlines, such as successful events and failure experiences from employees. A second tier culture values and embraces people in the other vMemes.
Any process that challenges underlying assumptions will cause distress and anxiety among group members. Finally, organizations make assumptions about appropriate ways to understand and solve problems. Reams, J. It shows that having fun in the working environment is an essential value of the company. Many change programs fails for that very reason. It is important that results are measured and that good performance is rewarded.
How to cite this article: Mulder, P. The focus placed on different functions within an organization will also reveal assumptions about the relative importance of each function. Researches talk about a range of leadership definitions but it is not easy to define. On the other hand, there are some critiques of Schein model form scholars viewpoints. Rites demonstrated by the collective interpersonal behavior and values constitute formal or informal culture structures. This is the definition Schein gives : A pattern of shared basic assumptions learned by a group as it solved its problems of external adaptation and internal integration … A product of joint learning.
According to Wilber Wilber, b , Orange cultures comprise 30 percent of the current population and 50 percent of world power. In other words, productivity and good management are inseparable. Schein includes organizational myths, legends, ceremonies and communication styles in this level of culture. Integral Organizational Development Ideally, individuals and organizations should evolve along multiple developmental lines concurrently in all four quadrants. Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood. Add individual reality to the mix and you find the shifting sands of what an organization defines as reality.