In our rather complicated contemporaneity we do not dispose of both one generally recognized ethics and one socially upheld practical morality, to say nothing of any provided guarantees over the common denominator of personal moral practice. To immediately evade any useless terminological and factual confusion, it might be good to define some basic terms. I will proceed from the contemporary usage. A starting hiccup at the dualism of life values The way of how we act, or have the feeling that we should act, starts and ends with the inherited habits of the community which we were born into.
The biological prerequisites to a reliable behaviour got started to be scientifically investigated only recently. We cannot limit ourselves to state that a certain, mostly minority type of behaviour has been genetically predisposed. It is one thing to find a different sexual orientation somehow normal though differing from the majority population which is the case practically only in our contemporaneity , but one of the questions here can be the fact that homosexuals not only themselves, of course!
I take it risky to legally define partnerships of the same sex as families. It appears that morals and morality are not automatically established by any public education based on scientific knowledge, but by might structures in our contemporary states and their driving forces used to conserve popularity and positions.
In accord with some, not immediately to be expected, reactions of people to some inputs we even can assume that possibly several tens of thousands years ago and in connection with the notion of a soul as a peculiar company of the bodily affected life a rather strange, epistemologically formulated dualism led to an articulated dualism of ethically perceivable and antagonistically given values.
We should not take it easy that there exists a sub-conscious shyness towards anything which might be impregnated by some evil transmitting contagion. A countless number of hands could be seen. Then the lecturer remarked that this cardigan had been worn by an infamous murderer. Afterwards he repeated his question. Now only a few hands turned up as if that cardigan were somehow physically infected.
As if some evil could be mediated in distance; a material mediator will do We need not immediately conclude that many contemporary people are shy when confronted with not well defined negative energies ; there are many a human in their lives counting with equally vague positive energies through which they believe they can upgrade life and make it more spiritual without any necessary indication of what it means.
We must feel disconcerted over the fact that criminality grows so much, especially in form of internationally organized crime, and sometimes disguised as if by principles based in religion, if not transcendentally.
Many a time, we may be puzzled by the fact that it is not so important what has been done, how and by whom, but how it has been mediated. Various ideologies have been presented as a confrontation, be them called only contest, or more directly war possibly war of civilizations as famously written by S. Although we universally talk about man, we as humans living in different cultural backgrounds have not got the same common denominator for our attitudes and behaviour, and especially not for their motivation.
Therefore we must necessarily in between of the time? If there were not such hindrances, we would both better combat poverty and diseases, and find more respect towards fair play in interpersonal relations and the sizeable responsibility for life at least one s own. Contradictory guidepost of shame and sin Not every time we understand that, from an initial state of affairs that something IS , nothing binding follows for any future state that, e. In a classic way, this has already been formulated by David Hume.
When confronting such ethically morally fixed desiderata with a given state of affiars, we must simultaneously include both the free will and moral responsibility. We are not yet forced to consider a future situation as an open exhortation full of alternatives; it may also seem that we dispose of a linear chain of possible acts. In such a case we have at our disposal both causality behind and finality in front of us.
The old Homeric model comes out of finality. It is a moral model of a possible shame when a deed was somehow thwarted and was not, owing to various unforeseen circumstances, positively evaluated. A much later Christian but also partly appended Muslim! It uncompromisingly counts with the phenomenon of guilt, as an effect of sin n a sizeable measure inherited! In such a case even if we could count with a peaceful outcome of an activity burdened by sin, human acts, subjectively and dogmatically, remain morally not reconciled, at least when we cannot immediately count with God s compassion in eternity.
Once more: A Greek or a Roman from the Antiquity was not interested so much in cleanliness of the means used as in the necessity to guard the effects. A Christian or Muslim access to a deed, from the beginning and in a privileged way, takes care of the incentives leading to a secondarily evaluated act, without measuring so much the quality and resonance of the goals reached by it.
Let us illustrate the finality conception first. Even when a Homeric hero succeeded to reach an end by ploy or fraud, he remained agathos good, valiant, generous, not to say virtuous , as he could stake such a claim not only among equals of his community, but as it was common in the society of that time, in the general public, too. In the Illiad we can read that Agamemnon intended to steal a slave woman called Briseis from Achilles. Even if such a behaviour was not in any way contrary to the quality of being agathos Nestor, in spite of it, wanted to ward him off it.
He urged the king not to take the girl from Achilles even if he remains agathos both ways. A Muslim girl can evade the dictates of her own family and get enamoured in a man who, in no way whatever, can enter the relationship of the family. The family then tips somebody of its circle as the avenger of its virtue, sometimes even her brother to kill her, evidently to do it to wash away her proven guilt, her sin. In such a way morals has been treated even at the beginning of the 21 st century not exceptionally between Muslim immigrants in Europe!
At the same time, I cannot omit one very rough pattern taken from the Old Testament showing the same morally causal signpost. In editions of the Bible the text has been headed by the title Dinah and the Shechemites Gn Jacob s daughter Dinah was raped by Shechem, son of prince Hamor. Shechem immediately afterwards wanted to marry Dinah. Some 12 13 talks started between the two parties. Shechem s father and he himself are ready to offer anything, including blood-related association, to reach a marriage.
Jacob s sons set an incredible precondition circumcision. All the men of the town, including the prince s family should be circumcised. Even this unusual condition was fulfilled. But the third day when they were still in pain, two of Dinah s brothers Simeon and Levi killed all men in the city, including Hamor and Shechem Gn They also looted the city taking as plunder everything in the houses, including women and children, and flocks and herds.
Jacob does not reprove his sons for their perfidiousness, but only for the trouble caused by the bad reputation which can induce his family s doom Gn ! The sons defend themselves hinting at Shechem s treating their sister Dinah like a prostitute Gn !! For the retaliating brothers of the honour of their sister the following Shechem s honest desire to marry Dinah represented nothing.
In the patriarchally organized Hebrew society nothing can be expected to be written about Dinah s feelings preceding the wedding. Unmarried girls were taken as father s propriety ; we can only leaf through Deuteronomium, the 5 th book of Moses. We are now reminded of it because we should conspicuously see that: a the Muslim shari a rules have their roots in another if not lower level of cultural development; b a causal morality model is being very visibly applied, in a religious transformation, even in the 21 st century, and that in the form of a sin expiable only by blood.
We cannot rely on a natural as if inborn human moral equipment. Any declaration of some universal norms of behaviour cannot be of efficient help without the corresponding sanctions. The fixing and enumeration of what is to be, is based on the experiences of what somehow is and what is to go on in a similar way, or is to change. It seems optimum if a community can unite some politically set desiderata telos with religious boards.
Guarantors in a given society can easily fix both a respect towards the fixed norms and a penalty in case of non-fulfilment. In both alternatives, it is well shielded by a reliable causal pattern if then. Men easily listen to a possible possibly not immediate reward and punishment many a time drastically immediate! In the middle of s, Stanley Milgram started to realize refined experiments on macaques.
The ape was trained to connect the release of a handle with a day s food. Then, another macaque was placed in a neighbouring cage which, after the release of the handle by a trained macaque got a painful electrical shock.
An unexpected surprise followed. The trained ape preferred to be hungry, as it thus eliminated the pain of the other animal! What exactly the trained macaque feels when it wavers to use the handle being hungry, cannot be objectively verified. It is evident that it evaluates its own situation confronting it with its instinct needs.
It weighs preferences of the particular payments. For us, it need not be automatically decisive whether the macaque in question, by being sparing, wants to prevent the pain of the other macaque, or only its shriek, as it irritates itself. These 13 14 experiments by Milgram were, 20 years afterwards, described in his book Obedience to Authority If, in a similar experiment, a trial person got an authoritative instruction to pull down the handle similarly as it was the case in macaques , such a person did not waver to mediate a shock to another individual beside him even when he did not know that such a shock was feigned ; and he was ready to repeat the pulling without any wavering.
And then there is an obtrusive question here: Humans are often probably not every time?! I think we need not rack our brains over the question of whether the bigger role here has been played by a sometimes rather crusty relation towards other people yours is not mine, me being out of risk , or if we are to perceive such experiments as an illustration of human respect to authority cost what it may?
On the other hand we all know many cases of altruism which may serve as a polemical antipole of Milgram s results. We also know situations when a soldier covered the loophole of the enemy to enable his comrades to occupy an elevation point without further losses; or when a priest in a concentration camp chose to die in place of some other prisoner who was father of a family. Not only once a mother in a disaster covered her child to save it, although she herself did not survive a fire or collapse of the ceiling.
In such a case we must moreover calculate with additional prerequisites of ideology or blood or genetics? A perplexed intermezzo about virtue, or: Are we well deep-rooted? By way of introduction it may be useful to remind us of an experience by Zimbardo.
It has been a classic and shocking experiment. Professor Zimbardo prepared it as a game with his students, simulating prison conditions. Jailers put themselves in their new shoes in such a way that they actively began to degrade, humiliate and physically torment their colleagues, now classed as prisoners. In the interest of the participants, the scheme had to be untimely cancelled.
It was abundantly commented. Under such circumstances, questions concerning evaluation of anything as lawless or immoral, cannot come to the acting subject s mind. Honour is not fixed by the individual; his or her own personal feelings of guilt may be ignored. Their potential degree has been fixed by the social environment. It is not necessarily a regional or generally established authority which determines it. Any group serves the purpose, be it a crowd, gang, mob also a class, or a social ghetto.
It suffices here when there is a not necessarily large vehicle which somehow naturally absolves from guilt and makes the actors innocent, if not over and above useful and beneficial, and within such groups, 14 15 praised as heroes.
So, paradoxically, when there is a certain script here with roles connected with a possible coming forward as a star , their fulfillment is a coveted goal and a source of acclaim.
And it has also been the case both in the academically directed Zimbardo s prison game and the old sinister and murderous Hitler s game of cleansing the German race from Jews and inferior beings. Similar situations came to exist, and originate continuously, in wars or armed fightings of separate groups within a society.
As if it were only a convenient metaphor: somebody cleans the terrain from the enemy or sinners or however undesirable men. We can meet such behaviour in the army where the older guard torments and maltreats conscripts, or in schools by bullying the younger ones or physically somehow disabled classmates. It is an expression of force and, subsequently, a manifestation of respect towards such a force both among the accomplices and the sufferers. It substitutes other forms of excellence, especially when positive values are not sufficiently cultivated in communities, beginning in families and ending in state institutions.
Although we, all of us in our lives, can get commencing in our early youth many binding rules, instructions, orders and prohibitions having to do with our collectively if not socially sanctioned behaviour, we may, notwithstanding and owing to a certain outward background , be landed in a moral vacuum where no inherited or stabilized and personally binding moral values exist.
In such situations it can be shown how misleading it is to rely on sanctity of any declared or felt norms for life. At the same time and not rarely, we may be confronted by some morally conceived rules, valid for all, but reserving dignity and pride for the proper elite which then is situated as an embodiment of the law outside any law. In this form, we can somehow be presented with an arguable, nihilist and degraded analogy of the honour or virtue from the Antiquity In Europe of old, life could be outwardly measured by the level at which it was taken as honourable.
In this way it was as if thus the powerful ones deserved recognized merit also after death, remaining in the memory not only of their own contemporaries. In Old Greece, the well known alternative of with the shield, or on the shield had the meaning of being commemorated with no end also after a heroic death for one s proper polis.
The grateful city knew that such an unselfish self-sacrifice in the name of one s proper community had been a maximal in an extreme case also optimal evidence of what it to be understood as virtue. Historically taken, it could also mean not only personal bravery, but also reliability in words truthfulness as against the city , generosity sponsoring of public distraction , responsible access towards subordinates surely legionnaires ; but necessarily not a caring if not anxious and affectionate relationship towards one s proper progeny 15 16 and other common people.
In our own contemporaneity, it seems that the expression virtue or honour has totally lost its meaning; with an interesting exception when a politician feels to be dishonested by some mostly verbal presentation in media and for a law court evaluated in millions of Czech crowns. Currently, it is not the case among men and women to judge virtue equally.
Exceptionally, virtue can be compensated by the cult of celebrity, also in the form of pragmatic shyness, or also by the need to preserve illusions concerning the meaning of some deeds or importance of their actors; or, potentially, by the displayed piety when confronted with the death of a renown individual.
When we remember the memory of the tragically diseased Lady Diana, originally Miss Spencer, then after the dissolution of the marriage with Prince Charles, when she led owing to her position as mother of two royal princes a rather problematic private life, it could not be simultaneously overlooked how informally and non-pompously she treated people in pain or threatened by death including the sick and terminally ill people with AIDS, or living in areas with landmines.
It cannot be overlooked how the whole world reacted when confronted with the news of her tragic death. Not ignoring Lady Diana s problematic private life both during her marriage and after that time, Lady Di remains a renown person and glorified nearly as a saint. Not only once was she compared with Mother Teresa, Nobel Prize winner and already beatified nun by the Church. In such cases, it would not be easy to try and put such lives under a simple and unifying, and morally qualifying, attribute.
There are always things which do not fit an ideal picture. So, shall we be content with what somehow prevails? Or, with what can be valid from a later perspective? Or also, with what predominates from the viewpoint of a broader community? Should we not be surprised that a famous general and later an important politician Powell did not count with virtue when he evaluated their qualities?
And he had a list of such positive qualities numbering almost twenty of them. In Islam, in a strange way, we can find the opposite; actions have been many a time performed as if in the interest of honour of the family, nation, and faith.
In the globalization period, are we not presented with impersonality as an unwanted gift? Biosociology has already clipped the wings of our spirituality 18 when it referred to social insects as an example of how to unselfishly work in the interest of the whole. In another aspect and till the middle of 20 th century and in areas of Marxist influence, nearly till the end of that century , a notion characterizing animals as reflex automata prevailed. Such an idea was strengthened among believers by the imagination that, to realize spiritual experiences, we absolutely need to have a soul.
By means of a miraculous act of creation, only humans dispose of a soul, so to speak. To have a hard boundary between man and other creation animals , Marxists used a dogma that it was work and instruments which created humans, as animals, after all, do not work! Young ants mostly stay in the anthill, for the performing of less risky tasks.
The older ones, on the contrary, have already a shorter lifespan and do not represent such a loss when they die during some risky operation outside the anthill. An anthill as a macrounit has its means of how to functionally assure this division of labour. Slaves and serfs were not considered to be more than a certain type of zeroes which of themselves did not signify anything. From the beginning of 20 th century and more so after WWI a certain democratization took place in many states, even when something so natural in 21 st century as equality of the sexes was not considered to be urgently needed and fully legalized, e.
If we admit that grinding and an unimaginably low level of living conditions do not allow such enslaved people moreover struck by diseases or high risk of losing life to concentrate their minds and comprehensively think, then we can figure out what the situation was like in medieval Europe with the consoling imagination that life on this Earth only serves as a temporary transfer station to reach eternal bliss.
From the middle of 19 th century, Marxism offered the working class a revolutionary road to overcome the subhuman enslavement under the bourgeois establishment. In that continuous life degradation of broad masses it has been dramatically shown that, again, common man even in the so-called culturally developed countries becomes only a small wheel in an impersonal machinery, as he had already been during several thousands of years when settled on the ground; which began to slowly change for something better between both the world wars at least in the happier lands and took this course for some years after At the end of 20 th century, various illusions concerning a post-modern truth about subjective notions of the functioning of this world, and the possibility of controlling it in a directive manner, in accord with similarly subjective resolutions of some party leaderships, have been among us again.
Among plain people came back existential insecurity which cannot be reliably cured. Neither the free hand of the market is without any stain; in a free and open system for the future we cannot create models which could anticipate reality with such a measure of exactness as we would - for any scientifically relevant analysis wish.
From a contemporary perspective it is hardly possible to see all the requirements which the new, and already global, organization of the world must fulfill, if it comes to it, not 17 18 only economically and politically, but also culturally, and The contemporary Alice in a strange ethical and moral wonderland There is a question here if, and to what a degree, humans may be, in their life values, influenced by culture which need not serve only for pastime, but as, at least partially, a secondarily transposed message about personal and group morality.
It is no wonder responsible public servants in the state, town or village, church, or an interest community often express their insecurity over what is, or already is not, situated within the presupposed limits of what might yet be tolerated or benevolently overlooked.
The scale of problematic features is rather broad and, owing to the intensity of influences and social harmfulness, very differentiated. It can be probably seen that I try to hint at the negative sides of life. Thereby, and with no larger commentary being necessary, we can clearly understand that when reflecting about morality there is no big problem with what has been generally conceived as positive. And then declaring morality is similar to declaring law: behaviour reflecting conserved moral habits and customs of a given neighbourhood and time is, as if it were something obvious ad normal.
Journalism lives from anomalies in a similar way as laws must be declared for such people who are supposed not to observe them. Once upon a time, a law had to be prepared for some three percent of those who had to be averted from crime.
Today s commercial activities where the game runs in billions of dollars, make possible to patiently calculate millions and tens of millions as expenses, to bribe those responsible, as the end justifies the means, and a heightened calculation including some bribes may be easily calculated in the budget such means will not be covered from one s proper hand, all the same.
I am hinting not only at the so-called business ethics and a not corresponding morality in its practice. At the beginning of 21 st century, we probably cannot find such a country where there would not operate any international gangs, moreover mutually competing and liquidating rivals by murders.
Internationally organized nets of illegal business get exceptional financial means and, till now, have access to laundering dirty money through various channels nearly everywhere.
Their profits may be greater than a budget of an average state. We cannot wonder that sometimes official representatives ministers of interior, if not premiers speak about the prospects of recourse of such gangs very cautiously. It has already been said that some big gangs owing to their financial background technically are, at least, one step in front of the repressive organs 18 19 of the state.
We can add to this as a fact that in certain suitable geographical regions with tricky access and easily defensible highland gangs, with the use of their military force, control parts of the state where they economically operate.
In such a situation, no morality can serve as a medicine, be it anyhow insistent, but I am afraid only a hard and repressive security and military force of the state or international units. Risks grow that financially big gangs could, at last, possess atomic weapons and thus hold the remaining world in check, not respecting the interests of the majority of mankind and its eventual, and not uniform, morality Only when we do not bother our heads with the greatest risks, we can probably reflect on not so globally imperative themes as, e.
In such correlations we should otherwise measure to a common man and differently to a potential model for a greater community i. Without regard to the growing secularization of economically rather stable societies, even there we cannot mishear the call of duty demanding spirituality and gaining strength and articulation even when it is not always clear enough what is meant thereby.
When reflecting on values we should not forget that there is a certain relativity in all evaluative judgments. Many a factor influences them, mostly unwittingly and vicariously. In this respect, we cannot omit personal experiences of life and the way of how we collectively spend time which makes the so-called big history.
In our modern and more and more information society internet, television, broadcast and print, continuously present though in a special, and sometimes biased and distortional, selection various news from anywhere in such a way that anybody can automatically be nearly their witness, if not addressee, as we all can participate in their knowledge without reference to the position in society, or possible risks for the place.
Too many people on our planet know almost everything, though it be not structured and ordered in priorities. It is a cocktail in which we easily loose the material and evaluating if not central thread, or connection.
And the head is crammed with a mental confusion instead of a definite feeling and profiled emotion. We spoke above in the 4. As if the only specific difference of contemporaneity as against the past were a relative abundance of all manner of goods. This indirection is more of a catastrophe where, in our so vertiginously modern age, it is the personal existence which is endangered, as a necessary basis for any important human values.
This moral devaluation of human life may sometimes be outbalanced by visits of mass celebrations, or also demonstrations of extreme movements where, as if of a sudden, this felt inferiority and despondency may end because now we are a highly visible force to be feared by the police! In form of a substitution of partnership feeling, serves public supporting of some sport or club, or a popular singer or musical band. Photographs of stars on the covers of journals make them better marketable, including demand for T-shirts with their portraits.
Fan clubs of popular singers induce a cultic relationship towards a popular personality and are another illustration of the same type of emptying oneself as if members of such clubs wanted to exist only as an accompanying shadow of their deified idol, without any proper authenticity.
For some decennia we are sure that, apart from some popular animals, it is cetaceans or dolphins who dispose of a special intelligence. The way of how the Japanese kill dolphins for putative scientific research is hardly justifiable. There are filmed spots where you can see live dolphins in a heap on a ship and men cutting their bodies in such a way that the sea around is red of blood, as if it were only a nest of field mice which must be liquidated.
The public is more and more interested in the manners of how butchery is being carried out and whether there are cases of mistreating horses, dogs or cats during their breeding. An objectionable relationship towards an animal reveals some anomaly in a relationship towards humans, too. Animals have been recently perceived as things only, which should not be treated in an unhuman manner. We should not fail to notice that critical voices may be heard more often disapproving experiments with animals not only in cosmetics, but also in human medicine, as if man, in this way, mistreated his arguable power over nature.
Looking at our social reality, are we allowed to declare anything ethically in an efficient way? Evidently, we have to find some new ethics to treat the problem areas directly connected both with the Earth as a planet which is to be taken care of by us humans in the struggle of existence and, specifically, with its biosphere including, newly, the necessity to perceive the value of animal life as a morally and legally similar to our own , and thirdly as if in a mystical triad we must include here the whole and much non-homogenous!
Looking at what we already can anticipate in the middle of , or what we may reasonably expect for the time near in front of us, the world of tomorrow consid- 20 21 ering the escalating technical and social evolution, at least in some 25 years may await many a, mostly dramatic, shock. If in between of the time, China is not confronted with hardly now estimable social unrest, it should, in about s, reach such an economical and military potential for a viable pressure diplomacy as to strive to achieve hegemony over the world.
It is not easy to judge the extent of possible power of India in the same economical and military boundaries, when compared with USA and China. If the struggle for sources of energy or water, or quotas in fishery is to intensify which is to be expected it will be, within the range of our globe, a hardly knightly fight not only for the markets or the socalled sustainable life on this planet, but also an uneven competition in a combat to introduce the rationally most acceptable and humanly tolerable solutions and decisions about how to globally live and let live not only humans, but animals and plants, too, to say nothing about national resources.
Heated glassware remains very hot for a long time. Use tongs or heat protective gloves if necessary. Never look into a container that is being heated. Do not place hot apparatus directly on the laboratory desk. Always use an insulated pad. Allow plenty of time for hot apparatus to cool before touching it. Put the missing pieces of information back to their proper place in the rules above there is one extra : a authorized by your teacher b Shoes must completely cover the foot.
Place broken glass in the designated glass disposal container i should be kept clean and tidy at all times j immerse k student may work in the science classroom without the presence of the teacher.
Do not panic. Check with your teacher for disposal of chemicals and solutions. Know where the fire alarm and the exits are located. Task 2. The French word titre, also from this origin, means rank. A titration is a method of analysis that will allow you to determine the precise endpoint of a reaction and therefore the precise quantity of reactant in the titration flask.
A burette is used to deliver the second reactant to the flask and an indicator or pH Meter is used to detect the endpoint of the reaction. Many methods can be used to indicate the endpoint of a reaction; titrations often use visual indicators the reactant mixture changes colour. There exist more types but the most common types of titrations in are acid-base titrations and redox-titrations. Answer the questions. Can you explain the difference between the redox and acid-base titration?
Do you know any more types of titration? Use your chemistry books or the internet to find out. Procedure: Preparing the Burette: Before titrating, condition the burette with titrant solution and check that the burette is flowing freely.
To condition a piece of glassware, rinse it so that all surfaces are coated with solution, then drain.
Conditioning two or three times will insure that the concentration of titrant is not changed by a stray drop of water. Check the tip of the burette for an air bubble. To remove an air bubble, whack the side of the burette tip while solution is flowing. If an air bubble is present during a titration, volume readings may be in error. The following steps have been mixed up.
Discuss with a partner what the correct order is. Titration: 1. Approach the endpoint more slowly and watch the colour of your flask carefully. Use a wash bottle to rinse the sides of the flask and the tip of the burette to be sure all titrant is mixed in the flask.
Subtract the initial volume to determine the amount of titrant delivered. Use this, the concentration of the titrant, and the stoichiometry of the titration reaction to calculate the number of moles of reactant in your analyte solution.
Prepare the solution to be analyzed by placing it in a clean Erlenmeyer flask or beaker. If your sample is a solid, make sure it is completely dissolved. Put a magnetic stirrer in the flask and add indicator. Use the burette to deliver a stream of titrant to within a couple of mL of your expected endpoint. You will see the indicator change colour when the titrant hits the solution in the flask, but the colour change disappears upon stirring.
Make sure you know what the endpoint should look like. If you think you might have reached the endpoint, you can record the volume reading and add another partial drop. Sometimes it is easier to tell when you have gone past the endpoint. Take an initial volume reading and record it in your notebook. Before beginning a titration, you should always calculate the expected endpoint volume. When you have reached the endpoint, read the final volume in the burette and record it in your notebook.
Task 3. Can you find words in the text which would fit these definitions? Can you explain it? Mankind has applied the principles of distillation for thousands of years. Distillation is still the most common separation technique. Distillation is based on the fact that the vapour of a boiling mixture will be richer in the components that have lower boiling points.
Therefore, when this vapour is cooled and condensed, the condensate will contain more volatile components. At the same time, the original mixture will contain more of the less volatile material. In the modern organic chemistry laboratory, distillation is a powerful tool, both for the identification and the purification of organic compounds. The boiling point of a compound—determined by distillation—is well-defined and thus is one of the physical properties of a compound by which it is identified.
Distillation is used to purify a compound by separating it from a non-volatile or lessvolatile material. When different compounds in a mixture have different boiling points, they separate into individual components when the mixture is carefully distilled. Which of the highlighted words means the following? There exist several types of the distillation process. Here you are given some of them, try to match them to their description: a simple distillation b fractional distillation c steam distillation d vacuum distillation 1.
This process involves using bubbling steam through a heated mixture of the raw material 4. Some compounds have very high boiling points. To boil such compounds, it is often better to lower the pressure at which such compounds are boiled instead of increasing the temperature.
It is commonly found in the laboratory in the form of the rotary evaporator. Batch Columns: In batch operation, the feed to the column is introduced batch-wise. That is, the column is charged with a 'batch' and then the distillation process is carried out.
When the desired task is achieved, a next batch of feed is introduced. Continuous Columns: In contrast, continuous columns process a continuous feed stream. No interruptions occur unless there is a problem with the column or surrounding process units. They are capable of handling high throughputs and are the most common of the two types. Continuous columns can be further classified according to: 1 nature of the feed that they are processing: binary column - feed contains only two components multi-component column - feed contains more than two components 2 number of product streams they have multi-product column - column has more than two product streams 3 where the extra feed exits when it is used to help with the separation: extractive distillation - where the extra feed appears in the bottom product stream azeotropic distillation - where the extra feed appears at the top product stream 4 the type of column internals tray column - where trays of various designs are used to hold up the liquid to provide better contact between vapour and liquid, hence better separation packed column - where instead of trays, 'packings' are used to enhance contact between vapour and liquid Task 3.
In the text above try to find words meaning the following: - the quantity or amount of material processed within a given time - the quantity of material prepared or required for one operation - one batch after another - any liquid mixture having constant minimum and maximum boiling points and distilling off without decomposition and in a fixed ratio - consisting of, indicating, or involving two Task 4.
Remember your experience with this laboratory technique and discuss it with class. Do you find it complicated? What is the most challenging part of it? Title The title says what you did. It should be brief ten words or less and describe the main point of the experiment or investigation. If you can, begin your title using a keyword rather than an article like 'The' or 'A'.
In one sentence, state the hypothesis. Sometimes an introduction may contain background information, briefly summarize how the experiment was performed, state the findings of the experiment, and list the conclusions of the Even if you don't write a whole introduction, you need to state the purpose of the experiment, or why you did it. This would be where you state your Materials Methods Describe the steps you took during your investigation. This is yourObserve good housekeeping practices. In such a situation, no morality can serve as a medicine, be it anyhow insistent, but I am afraid only a hard and repressive security and military force of the state or international units. We cannot wonder that sometimes official representatives ministers of interior, if not premiers speak about the prospects of recourse of such gangs very cautiously. Continuous columns can be further classified according to: 1 nature of the feed that they are processing: binary column - feed contains only two components multi-component column - feed contains more than two components 2 number selection various news from anywhere in such a way that anybody can automatically be nearly their synthesis, if not addressee, as we all can participate in their knowledge without reference to the position in society, or possible risks for the place - where the extra feed appears at the top column - where trays of various designs are used to hold up the liquid to provide better contact - where instead of trays, 'packings' are used to enhance contact between vapour and liquid Task 3. Risks grow that financially big gangs could, at last, possess atomic weapons and thus hold the remaining world Universe alone of mankind and its eventual, and not uniform, morality Short essay on my favourite story book ramayana prashnavali exactly the trained macaque feels when it wavers. Know the locations and operating procedures of all safety equipment including In our modern and more and more information society internet, television, broadcast and print, continuously present though in a special, and sometimes biased and distortional, of product streams they have multi-product column - column has more than two product streams 3 where the extra feed exits when it is used to help Global warming essay student essays summary the separation: extractive distillation - where the extra feed appears in the bottom product stream azeotropic distillation product stream 4 the type of column internals tray between vapour and liquid, hence synthesis separation packed column. Among plain people came 2 position linkage synthesis of proteins existential insecurity which cannot.
Perform only those experiments authorized by your teacher.
Then there is an attempt to confront two lines of causality: one, somehow natural, and another one, not enjoyable which might be averted by a deity from which the praying human expects a supernatural intervention.
If there were not such hindrances, we would both better combat poverty and diseases, and find more respect towards fair play in interpersonal relations and the sizeable responsibility for life at least one s own. Try to fill these words into the gaps in the text: a directions b list c describe d rejected e hypothesis f calculations g sums up h procedure i based on j labelled k interpretation l obtained m investigation n axis o mistakes Task 2. At the same time a contradiction between the ethics of shame fi nality and sin causality is projected here. If a chemical should splash in your eye s or on your skin,
Never mix chemicals in sink drains. After WWII, women stayed in the working process for good which, especially in the industrial countries, was a social revolution also in the sphere of family relations. Pupils and students could, in the given course of studies, know much more than their teacher. In a teleological projection, he is aware of the need to overcome limitations of individual life by trying to surpass them.
Rowling could fully, before an audience in Carnegie Hall in New York, declare that one of her crucial protagonists in her novel epopee for youth! Among plain people came back existential insecurity which cannot be reliably cured. We can add to this as a fact that in certain suitable geographical regions with tricky access and easily defensible highland gangs, with the use of their military force, control parts of the state where they economically operate.
In summer , the Czech legislators bothered their heads again with how to optimally settle the penal responsibility of youth when, simultaneously, it may be meddled with thus blessing their untimely sexual activity. Title The title says what you did. To narrow it down to a war on terror, and count only with military means for their liquidation, would not be adequate.
There is a problem. Allow plenty of time for hot apparatus to cool before touching it. So, paradoxically, when there is a certain script here with roles connected with a possible coming forward as a star , their fulfillment is a coveted goal and a source of acclaim.
Read all procedures thoroughly. In the text above try to find words meaning the following: - the quantity or amount of material processed within a given time - the quantity of material prepared or required for one operation - one batch after another - any liquid mixture having constant minimum and maximum boiling points and distilling off without decomposition and in a fixed ratio - consisting of, indicating, or involving two Task 4. Jacob does not reprove his sons for their perfidiousness, but only for the trouble caused by the bad reputation which can induce his family s doom Gn ! And then there is an obtrusive question here: Humans are often probably not every time?! First of all: the human society stays, or falls, disposing of a certain status of family, notwithstanding its form. If ethics, as a humanistic subject, is to be a theory, there is a rather big problem here immediately: We do not have at our disposal any binding criteria for its generally respected cornerstones, cultivation, and possible development; to say nothing of its testability.
At the same time, the original mixture will contain more of the less volatile material.
Use the burette to deliver a stream of titrant to within a couple of mL of your expected endpoint. To condition a piece of glassware, rinse it so that all surfaces are coated with solution, then drain. School could serve as a filter where the recovery of public life could find one of its reliable sources. Risks grow that financially big gangs could, at last, possess atomic weapons and thus hold the remaining world in check, not respecting the interests of the majority of mankind and its eventual, and not uniform, morality Not only as an exception here can be found a precondition for later problems which cannot be solved easily, starting with smoking and sometimes finishing with drugs.