People have converted the life support system of all living people into their own resources and have greatly disrupted the natural ecological balance. Serious degradation and depletion have been caused due to overuse, abuse and mismanagement of resources to meet human greed. Environmental pollution is defined as the adverse alteration of our environment. It is a by - product of human activities that directly or indirectly responsible of the changes in the environment.
These changes could be in the physical, chemical or biological characteristics of air or water that are harmful to human life and other living things. Population explosion, rapid industrialization, deforestation, unplanned urbanization, scientific and technological advancement, etc. The main causes of environmental pollution. Three-quarters of the land is water, but there is a shortage of drinking water.
In India, water sources are found in ponds and river lakes have been polluted and are unfit for consumption. Due to the increased use of fertilizers, seas and oceans have been contaminated with harmful pollutants. Industrialization has led to urbanization. The migration of the rural population to cities in search of work has created an unhealthy environment. This has led to overcrowding and the establishment of slum areas.
Cities and cities are full of smoke, smoke, dust, gas, smell and noise. Nuclear explosions and nuclear tests also pollute the air. Inadequate management of solid waste is one of the main causes of environmental pollution Kimani, Land pollution is one of the main forms of environmental calamity in current situation Khan, Consequences of Land Pollutants are dangerous such as extermination of wild life.
In land pollution, acid rain kills trees and other plants and vegetation that provides food and shelter is destroyed.
It can seriously disturb the balance of nature, and, in extreme cases, can cause human mortalities. Pesticides can damage crops; kill vegetation and poison birds, animals, and fish.
Most pesticides kill or damage life forms other than those intended. To prevent Land Pollution, it is advised that more and more land should be brought under farming. Trees should be planted everywhere. Waste matter should be disposed immediately and avoid drilling the Land for more underground water. People must avoid using more chemical fertilizers and Pesticides. Noise pollution, soil pollution and light pollution also harm the environment at an alarming rate. Causes of Noise Pollution include aircraft noise, noise of cars, buses, and trucks, vehicle horns, loudspeakers, and industry noise, as well as high-intensity sonar effects which are extremely harmful for the environment, noise from construction and civil engineering works.
Extreme noise pollution occurs due to technical advancement and the motor vehicle, which is responsible for about ninety percent of all undesirable noise internationally. To Avoid Noise Pollution, the Government should ensure the new machines that should be noise proof. Air ports must be away from residential area. Do not sound horn symbol is to be in school roads. Soil pollution is described as the impurity of soil of a particular region.
Soil pollution mainly is a result of penetration of damaging pesticides and insecticides, which deteriorate the soil quality, thus making it contaminated and unfit for use later. Main causes of soil pollution include Industrial wastes such as harmful gases and chemicals, agricultural pesticides, fertilizers and insecticides, ignorance towards soil management and related systems, unfavourable and harmful irrigation practices, improper septic system and management and maintenance of the same, leakages from sanitary sewage, acid rains, when fumes released from industries get mixed with rains, fuel leakages from automobiles, that get washed away due to rain and seep into the nearby soil, improper waste management techniques, which are characterized by release of sewage into the large dumping grounds and nearby streams or rivers.
Light pollution is described as excessive and incorrect artificial light Mizon, It is caused due to extreme use of artificial lights by humans. The powerful artificial light which are used to brightens offices, factories, sports stadium, street, parks and sometime even housing complexes obscure the night sky. The four components of light pollution are often combined and may intersect: Urban Sky Glow: The brightening of the night sky over inhabited areas.
Light Trespass: Light falling where it is not intended, wanted, or needed. Glare: Excessive brightness which causes visual discomfort. High levels of glare can decrease visibility. Clutter: Bright, confusing, and excessive groupings of light sources, commonly found in over-lit urban areas. The proliferation of clutter contributes to urban sky glow, trespass, and glare. Plethora of environmental studies have shown that environmental pollutants have various adversarial health effects.
The most important harmful effects are prenatal disorders, infant mortality, respiratory disorders, allergy, malignancies, cardiovascular disorders, and increase in stress oxidative, endothelial dysfunction, mental disorders, and various other harmful effects. Though, short-term effects of environmental pollutants are usually underlined, wide range of hazards of air pollution from early life and their possible implication on chronic non-communicable diseases of adulthood should be underscored.
Many studies have demonstrated that environmental particulate exposure has been linked to increased risk of morbidity and mortality from many diseases, organ disturbances, cancers, and other chronic diseases Kargarfard, Consequently, experts advised to take immediate action and control the pollution. Otherwise, the waste products from consumption, heating, agriculture, mining, manufacturing, transportation, and other human activities will damage the environment. Environmental Degradation Environmental degradation is a consequence of the active inter play of socio-economic, institutional and technological actions.
Environmental degradation is a process through which the natural environment is compromised in some way, decreasing biological diversity and health of the environment. Environmental degradation is described as the worsening of physical components of the environment brought in by human activities to such an extent that it cannot be set right by self-regulatory mechanism of environment. This process can be completely natural in origin, or it can be fast-tracked or caused by human activities.
Many global organizations identify environmental degradation as major threats to communities, planets. Environmental changes may be driven by numerous factors such as economic development, population growth, and urbanization, intensification of agriculture, more energy use and transportation.
Poverty is also major issue which creates environmental problems. The economics of environmental pollution, depletion and degradation of resources has been ignored as compared to the issues of growth and expansion.
India is also facing problems of environmental degradation because of the considerable increase in its population. Factors that Led Environmental Degradation There are basically two factors namely: 1.
Natural factors such as drought, storms on sea, land and deserts such as hurricanes, tornadoes, carina and volcanic eruptions. These factors lead to land degradation through erosion.
Human factors which include deforestation, industrialization and urbanization. These factors lead to water, air and land pollution.
Deforestation occurs due to many reasons that include trees or derived charcoal are used as, or sold, for fuel or as a commodity, while cleared land is used as grassland for livestock, plantations of commodities, and settlements. The exclusion of trees without sufficient reforestation has resulted in harm to habitat, biodiversity loss and dryness.
It has adversative impacts on bio-sequestration of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Deforested regions characteristically sustain substantial adverse soil erosion and frequently damage into wasteland.
Causes of deforestation: There are several causes of current deforestation such as dishonesty of government institutions, the unfair distribution of wealth and power, population growth and overpopulation, and urbanization. Globalization is also major cause of deforestation, though there are cases in which the impacts of globalization have supported localized forest recuperate.
Extinction It is the process by which a species, genus, or family, becomes extinct no longer existing and living in the world. It is the elimination and annihilation of something that previously existed in the world. In the arena of biology, it denotes specifically to the end of an evolutionary line, or a branch on the tree of life.
The extinction of a species can have significant consequences for an ecosystem and even for the physical environment and climate, often leading to further extinctions. Desertification: Desertification is the ruin of land in waterless and dry sub-humid areas due to many factors such as climatic changes and human activities. Desertification results primarily from man-made activities. It is mainly caused by overgrazing, over drafting of groundwater and diversion of water from rivers for human consumption and industrial use, all of these processes are fundamentally driven by overpopulation.
Main effect of desertification is reduced biodiversity and weakened productive capacity, for example, by transition from land dominated by shrub lands to non-native grasslands. Causes of desertification: Desertification occurs due to numerous factors, primarily anthropogenic causes, which began in the Holocene era and continues today. The primary reasons for desertification are overgrazing, over-cultivation, increased fire frequency, water impoundment, deforestation, over drafting of groundwater, increased soil salinity, and global climate change.
Multilevel set of causes of Desertification Source: Camilla Toulmin, Emmision Emission is process in which human or natural forces discharge chemicals or other substances into the environment. Emission leads to pollution such as emission is caused when chemicals are released into the air. Many natural processes cause emissions. When a volcano explodes, it lets out acid, and acid, ash, and many toxic gases. When fires break out in forests, they release smoke, soot, carcinogenic hydrocarbons, dioxins, and carbon dioxide.
Erosion Erosion is the procedure of weathering and carriage of solids in the natural environment or their source and deposits them elsewhere. It generally occurs due to transport by wind, water, or ice, by down-slope creep of soil and other material under the force of gravity; or by living organisms, such as burrowing animals, in the case of bio-erosion.
A certain amount of erosion is natural and, it is good for the ecosystem. Erosion is different from weathering, which is the process of chemical or physical breakdown of the minerals in the rocks, although the two processes may occur simultaneously.
Causes of environmental degradation Due to increased activities of humans and release of harmful chemicals, environmental conditions deteriorated and impact on human health. There are many causes of environmental degradation.
The speedy population growth and economic development in country are degrading the environment through the unrestrained growth of urbanization and industrialization, expansion and intensification of agriculture, and the obliteration of natural surroundings. Main reason of environmental degradation in India is unparalleled growth of population, which is unfavourably affecting the natural resources and environment.
The increasing population and the environmental deterioration face the challenge of continued development without environmental damage. Population impacts on the environment is mainly through the use of natural resources and production of wastes and is related with environmental stresses like loss of biodiversity, air and water pollution and increased pressure on arable land.
Another major cause of environmental degradation pointed out by environmentalists is Poverty. The circular link between poverty and environment is a tremendously complex phenomenon. Inequality may raise unsustainability because the poor, who rely on natural resources more than the rich, deplete natural resources faster as they have no real prospects of gaining access to other types of resources.The diseases can include any of these — Asthma, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Skin cancer, Lung cancer, Cardiovascular diseases and Stroke, Lead poisoning, Mercury poisoning, Radiation augmented cancers, Allergies, Birth defects, Lung diseases due to occupational exposure to various toxins; the list is endless. This disrupts the balance of the ecosystem and poses health risks. Hazardous Waste Recycling Treatment of hazardous waste material before disposal combined with recycling plastic waste will help unclog sewage pipes, gutters and garbage landfills. The earth and its creatures cannot sustain themselves due to the effects of environmental population. Prime Minister of India Shri.
Hybrid food farming should be replaced by genetically produced organic food. The exponential growth in the number of vehicles on the roads has only aided the emission of smoke that when released spreads and eventually mixes with the air that we breathe. Increasing the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere strengthens this effect and is expected to result in a warming of the Earth's surface. There is no other substitute. They can travel great distances by air or accumulate in the bodies of animals and humans who absorb chemicals through the skin or ingest them in food or water.
Without pollution control, the waste products from overconsumption , heating, agriculture, mining, manufacturing, transportation and other human activities, whether they accumulate or disperse, will degrade the environment. There are a lot of factors that contribute to water pollution, one very major contributing factor is industrial effluent disposed into rivers and seas and causing a large imbalance in the properties of water and this makes the bodies of water unfit for live. Water pollution gives birth to different water-borne diseases.
Land pollution is one of the main forms of environmental calamity in current situation Khan,
In the 21st century technological development in every field is given priority, but on the other hand, people are ruining the environment at the same time to fulfill their personal needs. Air pollution monitoring and source categorization Source: Bhola, et, al. Occurrence of Environmental Pollution: The occurrence of environmental pollution is when the surrounding is contaminated by pollutants; this brings about some changes that adversely affect our regular lifestyles. Some of them includes planting trees, reducing the use of non-renewable resources, proper disposal of wastes, etc.
In modern world environmental pollution has become a serious issue for the whole world. The main types of pollution are — air, water, soil, noise, thermal, nuclear and radiation. Soil pollution usually results from the elimination of solid and semi-solid wastes from agricultural practices and unhealthy habits.
Core samples of glaciers in Greenland indicate increases in pollution associated with Greek, Roman, and Chinese metal production. You do not have to see or go far to prove this.
Supreme Court of India has imposed a ban on old petrol and diesel vehicles in Delhi. Plastic pollution : involves the accumulation of plastic products and microplastics in the environment that adversely affects wildlife, wildlife habitat, or humans. Unprocessed garbage and sewage encroach upon unoccupied land making it dumping bin in sprawling cities. There are different causes of environmental pollution.