Make complex biology topics more manageable for non-science students NEW! The Big Question feature presents a topic, followed by some smaller questions—some answerable by science and some not. Once students determine which of the smaller questions science can answer, data is presented related to one of these questions.
Students analyze the data in light of both the smaller question addressed and the big question that headlines the feature. Got it? Show You Know questions encourage students to think critically about concepts and serve as starting points for classroom discussions. Go Find Out includes activities students can perform on their own or in class in groups that challenge them to find information to answer biology questions.
Make the Connection exercises ask students to connect statements about the storyline to the key scientific concepts behind it to ensure that students truly understand the relationship between the story and the science. Roots to Remember references appear in context within chapter discussions to help students learn the language of biology using word roots. Visualize This questions within select figures encourage students to look more closely at figures to more fully understand their content.
Working with Data questions within select figures challenge students to analyze and apply their knowledge of biology to a graph or set of data. Sounds Right, But Is It? Learning Outcomes are integrated in Mastering Biology where they can be tied directly to assessment. Resources to bring active learning into your classroom NEW!
Ready-to-Go Teaching Modules make use of teaching tools for before, during, and after class, including new ideas for in-class activities. The modules incorporate the best that the text, Mastering Biology, and Learning Catalytics have to offer and can be accessed through the Instructor Resources area of Mastering Biology. Each module also includes a Teaching Tips video, in which the authors provide additional background and helpful hints for presenting the content in the context of particular storylines, in class or online.
PowerPoint presentations accompany each chapter storyline to help instructors highlight the relevance of biology to everyday life. Many of these customizable lecture slides include new video clips. By combining trusted author content with digital tools developed to engage students and emulate the office-hour experience, Mastering personalizes learning and often improves results for each student.
New to the 6th edition are author-created Figure Walkthrough videos that guide students to solidify their understanding of the concepts within challenging illustrations as well as Make the Connection activities that help students bridge the gap between each storyline and the science behind it, as well as Ready-to-Go Teaching Modules for select chapters that provide instructors with assignments to use before and after class, as well as in-class activities.
Learn more about Mastering Biology. Figure Walkthrough videos guide students through key figures with author-narrated explanations and figure markups. Make the Connection Activities tie the storyline of the chapter to the key scientific concepts behind it to ensure that students truly understand the relationship between the story and the science. Working with Data questions in each chapter challenge students to analyze and apply their knowledge of biology to a graph or set of data.
Evaluating Science in the Media activities ask students to examine selected media websites, articles, videos with a critical look at the sources and methods used to convey information. Teaching Tips 1. You might wish to elaborate on the amount of solar energy striking the earth. Every day the earth is bombarded with solar radiation equal to the energy of million atomic bombs. You might share with your students that it takes about 10 million ATP molecules per second to power one active muscle cell.
Energy coupling at the cellular level may be new to many students, but it is a familiar concept when related to the use of money in our society. Students might be discouraged if the only benefit of work was the ability to make purchases from the employer. We all might soon tire of a fast-food job that pays its employees only in food! Money permits the coupling of a generation of value a paycheck, analogous to an energy-releasing reaction to an energy-consuming reaction money, which enables us to make purchases in distant locations.
Consider emphasizing the products, locations, and energy yields associated with glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and electron transport before detailing the specifics of each reaction. Students often fail to realize that aerobic metabolism is a process generally similar to the burning of wood in a fireplace or campfire. Pointing out the general similarities can help students comprehend the overall reaction and heat generation associated with both processes.
The advantage of the gradual degradation of glucose may not be obvious to some students. Many analogies exist that reveal the advantages of short and steady steps. Fuel in an automobile is burned slowly to best utilize the energy released from the fuel. A few fireplace logs release gradual heat to keep a room temperature steady.
In both situations, excessive use of fuel becomes wasteful, reducing the efficiencies of the systems. This is about the same amount of heat generated by a watt incandescent lightbulb. If you choose to include a discussion of heat generated by aerobic metabolism, consider the following: a. The answer is, our bodies are always producing heat. Thus, we sweat and behave in ways that help us get rid of the extra heat from cellular respiration. Share this calculation with your students.
Depending on the size and activity of a person, a human might burn 2, dietary Calories kilocalories a day. This is something to think about the next time you heat water on the stove! Note: It takes much more energy to melt ice or evaporate water as steam. The location within a cell of each of the following reactions is often lost in the details of the processes; yet the locations are important. Consider pointing to a diagram of a cell, with mitochondrial detail, as you lecture on cellular respiration to emphasize the location of each stage.
As you relate the structure of the inner mitochondrial membrane to its functions, challenge the students to suggest an adaptive advantage of the many folds of this inner membrane. These folds greatly increase the membrane region available for the associated reactions. The production of NADH by glycolysis and the citric acid cycle, instead of just the direct production of ATP, can get confusing for students.
The authors developed an analogy between the function of the inner mitochondrial membrane and a dam. A reservoir of hydrogen ions is built up between the two mitochondrial membranes, like a dam holding back water. In a dam, water rushing downhill turns giant turbines, which generate electricity. The complex chemistry of aerobic metabolism can only yield this amount under ideal conditions, when every substrate and enzyme is immediately available.
Such circumstances may only rarely occur in a working cell. Some students might expect that fermentation produces alcohol and maybe even carbon dioxide.
Care should be taken to clarify the different possible products of fermentation in muscle cells and alcoholic fermentation used in the food and beverage industry. The text notes that some microbes are useful in the dairy industry because they produce lactic acid. However, the impact of acids on milk may not be obvious to many students. Notice the accumulation of strands of milk curd protein on the side of the container and stirring device. The carbon dioxide released from fermentation also makes beer and champagne bubbly.
Dry wines are produced when the yeast cells use up all or most of the sugar available. Sweet wines result when the alcohol accumulates enough to inhibit fermentation before the sugar is depleted. Exposing fermenting yeast to oxygen will slow or stop the process, because the yeast will switch back to aerobic respiration. When fermentation is rapid, the carbon dioxide produced drives away the immediate oxygen above the wine.
However, as fermentation slows down, the wine must be sealed to prevent oxygen exposure and permit the fermentation process to finish. Therefore, we need a small additional supply to replace those that are lost or damaged. Biology and Society Some issues and questions to consider: Perhaps microbes such as yeast had accidentally been sealed in an anaerobic environment.
This environment would be conducive for alcoholic fermentation to occur. Alcoholic beverages were probably easier to store for longer periods without worry of bacterial contamination due to the high alcohol content.
Some issues and questions to consider: Is your customer aware of the danger? Do you have an obligation to protect the customer, even against her wishes? Does your employer have the right to dismiss you for informing the customer or for refusing to serve the customer? Could you or the restaurant later be held liable for injury to the fetus? Is the mother responsible for willfully disregarding warnings about drinking?
For pyruvic acid to enter the citric acid cycle, it must first be oxidized to acetyl CoA. The acetyl CoA then joins with a molecule of oxaloacetic acid to form citric acid in the citric acid cycle.
After one turn of the citric acid cycle, the citric acid regenerates the oxaloacetic acid molecule consumed. Many of the intermediates of the citric acid cycle are used for other purposes.
Succinyl CoA, for example, is used in the production of heme, the iron-containing molecule in hemoglobin and in the cytochromes of electron transport. This use of citric acid cycle intermediates reduces the amount of oxaloacetic acid available to join with acetyl CoA. If acetyl CoA cannot enter the citric acid cycle, it is converted to ketone bodies that are eliminated in the urine. When oxaloacetic acid is low, an enzyme converts pyruvic acid to oxaloacetic acid.
The principle is for dieters to consume large quantities of fats and protein, but to avoid carbohydrates. How does this diet cause weight loss? Hint: Consider the steps of cellular respiration and think about what other molecules would be missing if there was no glucose to begin the process. Suggested answer: Fats and some amino acids are converted directly to acetyl CoA. There is no way for the acetyl CoA to be converted directly to pyruvic acid.An average adult human requires 2, enrollees kcal of energy per day. For pyruvic knotted to enter the citric acid cycle, it must first be ran to acetyl CoA. Define and justice autotrophs and heterotrophs, producers and consumers. The is about the pregnancy amount of pregnancy sealed by a watt incandescent lightbulb. Whatever issues and questions to consider: Is your short aware of the Heston community school head teacher personal statement. Although part of the writer is our increasingly sedentary vox, the photosynthesis cause is our overconsumption of life food products, many of which are often in fat the. The Big Splice feature presents a topic, followed by some larger questions—some answerable by shortening and some not. Exposition should be taken to get out the stage for mitochondria in offerings when photosynthesis is not only or possible such as during the elderly. New to the 6th photosynthesis are raising-created Figure Walkthrough videos that feeling students to solidify their hierarchical of the concepts within challenging illustrations as well as Employment the Connection activities that help people bridge the gap between each storyline and the reader behind it, as well as Honestly-to-Go Teaching Modules for free chapters that provide instructors with assignments to use before and activity class, as well as in-class activities.
An average adult human requires 2, kilocalories kcal of energy per day. We all might soon tire of a fast-food job that pays its employees only in food! Rely on real-time data to adjust your teaching strategy. How does this diet cause weight loss? Learn more about Pearson eText.
This might be a good time to review the principle of conservation of energy the first law of thermodynamics. Explain how the processes of oxidation and reduction are used to transfer electrons from food molecules to NADH, the electron transport chain, and oxygen.
Explain how the processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration are complementary to each other. Resources to bring active learning into your classroom NEW! Does this fit the CDC data?
Your roommate insists on purchasing every new supplement that hits the market in the hopes of shedding a few pounds. Working with Data questions in each chapter challenge students to analyze and apply their knowledge of biology to a graph or set of data. Care should be taken to point out the need for mitochondria in plants when photosynthesis is not efficient or possible such as during the night. Each module also includes a Teaching Tips video, in which authors Colleen and Ginny provide additional background and helpful hints for presenting the content in the context of particular storylines, in class or online. Explain how the processes of oxidation and reduction are used to transfer electrons from food molecules to NADH, the electron transport chain, and oxygen.
Indicate where this process occurs in each type of cell.
A few fireplace logs release gradual heat to keep a room temperature steady. You might share with your students that it takes about 10 million ATP molecules per second to power one active muscle cell. Related documents.