Citations by the same author are then arranged chronologically, with the most recent first. Eales, S ed. Although some references may be plainly verified by primary sources , this does not demonstrate the significance of the reference. Furthermore, when the primary source in question only presents the reference, interpretation of this may constitute original research where the reference itself is ambiguous. Quoting a respected expert attesting to the importance of a subject as a cultural influence is encouraged.
Absence of these secondary sources should be seen as a sign of limited significance, not an invitation to draw inference from primary sources.
In determining whether a reference is encyclopedic, one helpful test can be to look at whether a person who is familiar with the topic only through the reference in question has the potential to learn something meaningful about the topic from that work alone. For example, if a movie or a television series has been filmed in a town, the viewer is seeing a concrete representation of what the town actually looks like at street level; but if the town is merely mentioned in a single line of dialogue, the viewer hasn't learned anything except that the place exists.
Depth of treatment in the source is usually a strong determining factor in the distinction between relevance and triviality. Inclusion of coverage in works of minor significance — There is no encyclopedic interest in a famous historical figure being featured prominently in someone's self-published webcomic.
The source of an in-depth popular culture reference does not necessarily have to be notable by Wikipedia's definition, but the more notable the source is, the less likely that its inclusion in a popular culture section is trivial.
Inclusion of more and more pop-culture details the more influential or general the topic is — A litany of innumerable novels, TV shows, and films featuring Julius Caesar, dogs, New Hampshire, World War II, wizards, or hip hop is not useful to anyone.
Topics of this level of world importance or broad generality never need pop-culture bulleted lists. Lists with bullets tend to grow exponentially, to the point that they become an indiscriminate collection of trivia. If a cultural references section is present in an article on WWII, for example, it should be reserved for major, in-depth treatments of the subject that have had lasting significance.
As well, it should be written in prose, in paragraph form. This "raises the bar" for contributing to the section, and makes editors less likely to add trivia. Chicago Reference the film in-text by placing the director of the movie in parentheses followed by the year the movie was released. Italicize the name of the movie when referencing it in the the essay. Cite the movie in the references section using the tile of the movie, the format, the director, the year released into theaters, the location where the movie was filmed, the producer of the movie and the release date of the video copy.
Reference the citation like this: Name of film italicized. Directed by Director's first name and last name. Year of theatrical release; Location of the studio City, State abbreviation: Film distributor, home viewing release year. AP Cite the film in essay by the title of the film only. Place quotation marks around the title, rather than italicizing the title. Capitalize the first and last word in the title, as well as all principle words. Capitalize verbs and prepositions if they contain more than three letters.
Does the mood shift at any point during the film, and how is that shift in mood created? What does the setting say about certain characters? How are props used to reveal aspects of their personality? What songs were used, and why were they chosen? Are there any messages in the lyrics that pertain to the theme? Writing the film analysis essay Writing film analysis is similar to writing literary analysis or any argumentative essay in other disciplines: Consider the assignment and prompts, formulate a thesis see the Brainstorming Handout and Thesis Statement Handout for help crafting a nuanced argument , compile evidence to prove your thesis, and lay out your argument in the essay.
Your evidence may be different from what you are used to. Whereas in the English essay you use textual evidence and quotes, in a film analysis essay, you might also include audiovisual elements to bolster your argument. When describing a sequence in a film, use the present tense, like you would write in the literary present when describing events of a novel, i.
However, conventions are flexible, so ask your professor if you are unsure. It may also help to follow the formatting of the script, if you can find it. Here are some tips for approaching film analysis: Make sure you understand the prompt and what you are being asked to do. Focus your argument by choosing a specific issue to assess. Review your materials.
Rewatch the film for nuances that you may have missed in the first viewing. With your thesis in mind, take notes as you watch. Finding a screenplay of the movie may be helpful, but keep in mind that there may be differences between the screenplay and the actual product and these differences might be a topic of discussion! Develop a thesis and an outline, organizing your evidence so that it supports your argument. Remember that this is ultimately an assignment—make sure that your thesis answers what the prompt asks, and check with your professor if you are unsure.
Zinkievich, Craig. Cite the bibliographic information as above followed by the information for the source in which the photograph appears, including page or reference numbers plate, figure, etc. Italicize the name of the movie. Use the following information for the references page: Last name of the director or producer and initial of the first name, the year the film was released, the title of the film and the location of the studio followed by the name of the studio. Further addition of popular culture content can easily be discouraged with HTML comments in the areas of the article where cultural references are usually added, e. Title [Film].
Add a comma after the city name and a colon after the state name. Contextual analysis Contextual analysis is analysis of the film as part of a broader context.
Quoting a respected expert attesting to the importance of a subject as a cultural influence is encouraged. Then follow with MLA format per usual. MLA Reference the video in-text differently than you would for printed sources. Published Interviews Print or Broadcast List the interview by the full name of the interviewee. Don't split the section out if you think it would be likely to get deleted. Think about the deeper meaning behind objects or actions.
Reference the citation like this: Name of film italicized. Then follow with MLA format per usual.
Audiovisual elements that can be analyzed include but are not limited to : props and costumes, setting, lighting, camera angles, frames, special effects, choreography, music, color values, depth, placement of characters, etc. Directed by Director's first name and last name. Ultimately, however, analysis of film is not too different. Some appropriate and inappropriate examples of xkcd being mentioned in Wikipedia articles are as follows: Good example: xkcd author Randall Munroe loves the Python programming language. Finally, complete the citation with the format of the movie, i.
Hedberg, Mitch. Films or Movies List films by their title.
End the entry with the name of the digital format e. In others, the section should be split off, but paring down the section first will help the new article stand on its own.
He wrote a strip that implies using Python is so easy that if there were a module called antigravity, then you could just import antigravity and be flying in five minutes. How to cite a movie in Chicago Style Like in the MLA and APA styles, before you start citing a movie Chicago style in text and full citations in your paper, you will need to have certain details about the movie being cited.
Write the city and the state names where the movie was originated or produced.
Smith, George. For example, if the reference is to a specific model of car, did the material use that model car for some reason, or was it just a case of "use a well-known name of a car"?
If your essay is meant to be accessible to non-specialist readers, explain what terms mean. Provide the name of the series in italics. Tansey and Fred S.