Nevertheless, it is not clear to what extent the adolescent can manage the effect of behavioral problems and peer group interaction for refusing invitations for drug consumption. Accordingly, recent progress in evaluating drug abuse among adolescents would continue for information sharing in the field of clinical and research services.
Footnotes Conflict of Interest: None declared. Poor RA. Tehran: Salaman; A guide for prevention and treatment of substance abuse; p. Siam SH. Drug abuse prevalence in male students of different universities in Rashtin Tabibe Shargh. Madadi A, Nogani F. Tehran: Jameanegar; Jahangiri B. Tehran: Arjmand; A guide for cognition and treatment of addiction in Iran; p. Drug abuse pattern based on demographic factors in self-introducing addicts in Gorgan province, the scientific.
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Advances in the science of adolescent drug involvement: Implications for assessment and diagnosis - Experience from the United States. Curr Opin Psychiatry. They indicate actions related to health education, working with various topics and developing coping strategies for difficult situations with youth in a perennial fashion that is combined with everyday school practices: Eduardo: Making it part of the day-to-day discussion in school [ Thayame: Specific moments also, right?
Creating specific moments. They also emphasize the need to offer alternatives that allow young people to experience sensations such as pleasure, learning, challenges, excitement, confronting limits, and mind expansion, among others, to reduce interest in drug use. Paloma: Thus, the importance of sports is crucial because it works with the body, in addition to working with the mind [ And then also culture [ In other words, why does theoretical knowledge not translate into practical action? The next and final topic to be discussed in this paper might shed some light on these issues.
The various challenges presented by the educators are divided into three groups that are interrelated and influence each other.
This association has often had a crippling effect on preventive actions in the school environment, as indicated by the studies of Dalbosco and Abramovay and Castro They are largely fostered by the sensationalist manner in which the press covers the issue, spreading, without legitimate evidence, a climate of permanent insecurity. There is also the possibility that discourse about a lack of knowledge constitutes a defense strategy in response to the complexity of the issue. Finally, there are challenges attributed to the educational field, such as the difficulty of combining and integrating projects in school, a lack of institutional support for actions, a lack of time due to excessive school demands, and a lack of teaching resources supporting preventive actions.
In this sense, another important point to be considered is the lack of integration between the concept of vulnerability and its impact on preventive practices for drug consumption, both in teacher training and in the few prevention projects developed within the school environment. Moreover, these experiences have mostly been guided by models that are explicitly or implicitly focused on abstinence, which are ineffective SODELLI, In this sense, the evaluation of the process of knowledge construction undertaken by this action research presents evidence that significant changes in some social representations, as presented, may hinder prevention efforts in the school context.
We cite just a few examples. First, we observed a more tolerant social representation in relation to a student who consumes psychotropic substances, as shown in the graphs below, which include data expressed in percentages.
This change points to a less reductionist view and is based on knowledge validated by science regarding drug consumption. Training based on the principles of liberating education FREIRE, enabled certain representations and viewpoints to be denatured and new concepts to be constructed: I thought people who use drugs were all addicts.
The meetings broadened my knowledge. Today, I feel more confident when I have to talk to students about the subject. We found that training also changed some perceptions about aspects of preventive work, as shown in the graph below. However, in some cases, there are real restrictions on preventive work due to the actions of traffickers.
Often, these considerations are part of a strategy to reduce accountability. Nevertheless, teachers described alternative ways to act preventively, without defying the illegal drug trade, based on models of Offering Alternatives, Health Education and Modifications of Teaching Conditions, which were discussed in the meetings.
We also perceived increased teacher accountability, assigning oneself the role of key player in prevention in the school environment, as observed in the graph below.
From the analysis of this experience, factors emerged that hinder schools and teachers from developing prevention and health promotion actions: a The presence of social representations that linearly relate drug use to violence and abnormality, causing feelings of fear and insecurity among teachers and making it difficult to approach students who may be using drugs as well as the topic itself; b The accountability of other institutions for prevention, such as the family and the fields of health and safety, rather than implicating themselves in the preventive role proposed for the field of education and educators.
This factor is encountered in discourse about the need for a specialist and demonstrates the difficulty of bringing a sense of prevention to the meaning of education; c The operation of the public school system with multiple demands, scarce time for planning reflection, and disconnection between teachers, coordinators and principals.
These data are linked to the lack of integration of cross-cutting themes and the PCNs themselves; h The fragility of the support network, which hinders the establishment of partnerships with health facilities, safety, sports and leisure. It is important to note that, in addition to the recognition of these challenges, educators also indicated the possibilities they see for health promotion actions and factors that positively influence the development of such actions, as outlined below.
They emphasize the improvement of the school environment as a protective factor. They highlight some necessary changes, for example, the recognition of the importance of the teacher-student bond in coping with situations involving drug abuse and better integration between the school and community.
They emphasize that the school should be open to the involvement of families and share democratic principles of participation and development of autonomy among the students considered in the civic dimension. They validate conducting activities related to sports, arts and culture, as well as the implementation of moments of reflection inside and outside the classroom on various topics related to adolescence as preventive actions.
They also point to the importance of preventive actions that are perennial and present in everyday school life. In the face of identifying drug use by students, teachers generally guide the intervention in the pursuit of dialogue and coordination with the family and support network.
Considering the process of action research and its consequences, educators, although fearful, recognize the importance of prevention and position themselves as co-responsible for preventive actions. The data demonstrate that there is significant agreement in the considerations of these educators of promising approaches for the educational field.
The limitations of this study are linked to the characteristics of its methodological choices, which produce non-generalizable data. A potentially interesting avenue for future research would be to investigate the challenges and performance possibilities for educators in projects in different sectors of the school. It is important to conduct studies in the areas of training and skill-building for educators, whether they are teachers, coordinators, principals, or professionals in non-governmental organizations NGOs , considering that this training is permeated by guidelines based on the notion of vulnerability and harm reduction and sustained in the liberating approach of education.
Similarly, it is important to assess the consequences of these configurations in practical experiences with prevention and health promotion. In conclusion, of the challenges to prevention in the school environment, acquiring information is the least complex. In the process of building it, a respectful encounter between health and education may result in significant gains for training professionals in both areas.
Interface, Botucatu, v. Acesso em: 25 fev. Epub: 06 mar. Rio de janeiro: Fiocruz. Acesso em: 07 nov. Acesso em: 10 abr. Acesso em: 15 maio Drogas e cultura: novas perspectivas. Salvador: Edufba, O livro das drogas: usos e abusos, preconceitos e desafios. Universal school-based prevention programs for alcohol misuse in young people.
Pedagogia do oprimido.Poor RA. Tehran: Arjmand; Main findings Drugs, dependency and prevention: the knowledge of teachers The results indicate that much of the knowledge of educators is in line with scientific knowledge, mainly related to the effects of drug use and its organic consequences.
A guide for cognition and treatment of addiction in Iran; p.
Investigating addictive drugs prevalence among university students showed the prevalence in the following order: Hookah Iran's Epidemiology, winter.
The extent of cigarette, hookah, alcoholic breavegaes, narcotics and stimulants among high school students. Also, 2. Drug consumption, excluding cigarette, was Universal school-based prevention programs for alcohol misuse in young people. They highlight some necessary changes, for example, the recognition of the importance of the teacher-student bond in coping with situations involving drug abuse and better integration between the school and community.
The full texts of the articles were often accessible in the scientific information database and magiran websites, but the full text of the article about Gilan Province was obtained after contacting the journal's office. Fortaleza, There is no need. In this sense, consumption and dependence are understood as resulting from family failure, which is characterized by a lack of dialogue, presence and affection. Diego: By a lack of control [ Acesso em: 15 abr.
It is important to conduct studies in the areas of training and skill-building for educators, whether they are teachers, coordinators, principals, or professionals in non-governmental organizations NGOs , considering that this training is permeated by guidelines based on the notion of vulnerability and harm reduction and sustained in the liberating approach of education. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. They validate conducting activities related to sports, arts and culture, as well as the implementation of moments of reflection inside and outside the classroom on various topics related to adolescence as preventive actions. Training based on the principles of liberating education FREIRE, enabled certain representations and viewpoints to be denatured and new concepts to be constructed: I thought people who use drugs were all addicts. Drug consumption, excluding cigarette, was A study in Kerman on students with the mean age of
Camila: Because, for me, everything is relative. In Gilan, drug use, excluding cigarette, was reported In the face of identifying drug use by students, teachers generally guide the intervention in the pursuit of dialogue and coordination with the family and support network.
Beck F, Legleye S. Camila: When my cousin got involved with drugs, the family was not balanced [ Why would I do that?
In Karaj city, drug consumption prevalence was studied for each sex and drug type [ Table 2 ]. Entertainment constitutes the tendency for drug consumption in most cases The various challenges presented by the educators are divided into three groups that are interrelated and influence each other. In this sense, we believe that proposing situations for the focus group preceding but in combination with the training meetings contributed immensely to organizing the times for listening and constructing data.
Tehran: Jameanegar; Moreover, these experiences have mostly been guided by models that are explicitly or implicitly focused on abstinence, which are ineffective SODELLI, In the process of building it, a respectful encounter between health and education may result in significant gains for training professionals in both areas.
Salvador: Edufba, J Gorgan Univ Med Sci.