The hypothesis is written as a statement, not as a question or prediction. State your hypotheses as null hypotheses. For example, you might hypothesize that "the pH of water in a closed container that holds a fish does not change over time.
Your hypotheses need to be based on facts you have learned from lectures or literature. Methods: Include a Methods section in your laboratory report if you are asked to do so. The methods section includes a concise description of the materials, procedures, and equipment used. It should clearly describe the experimental situation, the control situation s , and the type of observations you made.
You need to explain your methods in enough detail that another person could repeat the experiment after reading your report.
Do not include the rationale for your work in this section. Also, be sure to report your procedure in the past-tense rather than as a set of instructions to your reader. Use explanations to state your methods rather than "cookbook" instructions e.
Would you be able to repeat this experiment based on the methods described in yur report? How many individuals or test items were examined, i. Do you think this sample size is adequate? When were the samples taken? Should they have been taken at specific time intervals? If an experiment was conducted, what factors or variables were held constant?
Were controls necessary for this experimental design? If so, were they provided for in each experiment? Was the study replicated? If yes, can you tell how many times? The purpose of null hypothesis testing is simply to help researchers decide between these two interpretations.
This is the idea that there is no relationship in the population and that the relationship in the sample reflects only sampling error. This is the idea that there is a relationship in the population and that the relationship in the sample reflects this relationship in the population. Again, every statistical relationship in a sample can be interpreted in either of these two ways: It might have occurred by chance, or it might reflect a relationship in the population.
So researchers need a way to decide between them. Although there are many specific null hypothesis testing techniques, they are all based on the same general logic. The steps are as follows: Assume for the moment that the null hypothesis is true. There is no relationship between the variables in the population.
Determine how likely the sample relationship would be if the null hypothesis were true. Following this logic, we can begin to understand why Mehl and his colleagues concluded that there is no difference in talkativeness between women and men in the population. Therefore, they retained the null hypothesis—concluding that there is no evidence of a sex difference in the population.
We can also see why Kanner and his colleagues concluded that there is a correlation between hassles and symptoms in the population. Therefore, they rejected the null hypothesis in favour of the alternative hypothesis—concluding that there is a positive correlation between these variables in the population.
A crucial step in null hypothesis testing is finding the likelihood of the sample result if the null hypothesis were true.
Do not explain results or discuss them here. The methods section can be written as separate paragraphs for each different experimental set up you had to perform or can be split off into subsections each with its own subtitle.
This was repeated for all 5 tubes and the respective times were recorded. Twenty-four well plates were prepared with ul of I2KI. This was repeated for all 6 tubes and the respective times were recorded. This was repeated for all 4 tubes and the respective times were recorded. Lab Report Results Writing the results section in a lab report is as easy as writing the methods. Here you are simply stating what your results were and that's it.
Do not discuss results here, just state them. Again, use subheadings if it is appropriate for your experiment, in this case, it is. In the first trial figure 2 the activity of amylase as measured by time taken to fully digest starch had no logical correlation as the serial dilutions decreased in concentration of amylase. Amylase Activity at Various pHs The activity of amylase as measured by time taken to fully digest starch was tested at pHs of 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 as seen in figure 4.
The time taken to digest starch in seconds was 50, 50, 20, 10, 20, and 20 respectively. As the pH increases toward the ideal pH for enzyme activity of 6. The time taken to digest starch in seconds was , , , and respectively.
Discussion The last major part of writing a lab report is the discussion. This should be the longest section and Explain what the results mean Discuss if they support the hypothesis or not Explain possible sources of error Discuss further experimentation that can be done Example Discussion In the concentration experiment of amylase it was expected that as the concentration of amylase is decreased, it should take longer for the digestion of starch to be completed and therefore less time until the I2KI indicator turns yellow.
The results shown did not reflect this hypothesis. There was no logical correlation between time and starch digestion as the serial dilutions decreased in concentration of amylase.
In the first trial the highest concentration of amylase actually took longer than the lowest concentration of amylase to digest the starch. With these results having no clear explanation, a second trial was set up using a fresh batch of I2KI, new amylase enzyme, and a new starch solution. This was a more appropriate result since it was expected that a higher enzyme concentration would react faster than a sample with barely any enzyme or none at all.
However, in all cases the sample ran out before the I2KI could start turning yellow.In the first trial however, a possible reason for the illogical results could be the preparation of any of the solutions that were used in the reaction including the starch precipitating out of solution before if had a chance to be mixed with the enzyme and the rest of the reactants. They ARE your results and need to be discussed. Be sure to include a title and to label both axes. If the experimental design is sound, then you can be confident about conclusions you make from the data. But it could also be that there is no relationship in the population and that the relationship in the sample is just a matter of sampling error. The rows represent four sample sizes that can be considered small, medium, large, and extra large in the context of psychological research.
Written results should not only refer to graphs and tables, but also describe the trends you believe important. The title summarizes information presented in the Introduction and Results section of the report. Don't be afraid to speculate in this section but make sure it is clear to the reader what is speculation and what is not. If you present data in a report, you must make it clear to the reader what those results show. This was repeated for all 4 tubes and the respective times were recorded.
Graphs are especially appropriate when several measurements need to be compared simultaneously. This is the idea that there is a relationship in the population and that the relationship in the sample reflects this relationship in the population. Table This was repeated for all 6 tubes and the respective times were recorded. Use explanations to state your methods rather than "cookbook" instructions e. On the contrary, you will likely suspect that there is a relationship between a set of variables.
Rephrase that question in a form that assumes no relationship between the variables. Your results will support, verify, or confirm your hypothesis, or they will negate, refute, or contradict your hypothesis; but the word prove is not appropriate in scientific writing. Even professional researchers misinterpret it, and it is not unusual for such misinterpretations to appear in statistics textbooks! Finish your discussion with statements of the conclusions that you drew from your results. If the null hypothesis is rejected, what may have caused the differences observed i.
How might you test these potential explanations? A good setup is shown below Example Title Influence of pH, temperature, and concentration on amylase activity by: Author's Name Date Abstract Writing the abstract is pretty easy, there is an introduction sentence, then explain what you did in the experiment in the next few sentences and conclude with your results sentences.