The nurse manager hires and fires nurses. On each shift a resource nurse attends to the functioning of the unit as a whole, such as making sure beds are available in the operating room, and also has a patient assignment.
The nurse clinician orients new staff, develops policies, and provides support where needed. The clinical nurse specialist also orients new staff, mostly by formal teaching. The nurse manager, nurse clinician, and clinical nurse specialist, as the designated experts, do not take patient assignments. The resource nurse is not only a caregiver but a resource to the other caregivers. Within the staff nurses there is also a hierarchy of seniority. Their job is to give assigned patients all their nursing care.
The phrases in red are directly copied from the source or changed only slightly in form. Even if the student-writer had acknowledged Chase as the source of the content, the language of the passage would be considered plagiarized because no quotation marks indicate the phrases that come directly from Chase.
And if quotation marks did appear around all these phrases, this paragraph would be so cluttered that it would be unreadable. A Patchwork Paraphrase Chase describes how nurses in a critical care unit function in a hierarchy that places designated experts at the top and the least senior staff nurses at the bottom. The experts — the nurse manager, nurse clinician, and clinical nurse specialist — are not involved directly in patient care.
The staff nurses, in contrast, are assigned to patients and provide all their nursing care. Within the staff nurses is a hierarchy of seniority in which the most senior can become resource nurses: they are assigned a patient but also serve as a resource to other caregivers.
The experts have administrative and teaching tasks such as selecting and orienting new staff, developing unit policies, and giving hands-on support where needed. A Legitimate Paraphrase In her study of the roles of nurses in a critical care unit, Chase also found a hierarchy that distinguished the roles of experts and others.
Just as the educational experts described above do not directly teach students, the experts in this unit do not directly attend to patients. The roles of the experts include employing unit nurses and overseeing the care of special patients nurse manager , teaching and otherwise integrating new personnel into the unit clinical nurse specialist and nurse clinician , and policy-making nurse clinician.
In an intermediate position in the hierarchy is the resource nurse, a staff nurse with more experience than the others, who assumes direct care of patients as the other staff nurses do, but also takes on tasks to ensure the smooth operation of the entire facility.
The social context of critical care clinical judgment. Heart and Lung, 24, How to Quote a Source Introducing a quotation One of your jobs as a writer is to guide your reader through your text. Notice how a transitional phrase also serves to connect the quotation smoothly to the introductory statement. Use single quotation marks for quotations within quotations. But then someone told me, 'Pay it no mind, lad. Also note that, as a courtesy, there is visible space between adjacent single and double quotation marks.
Rule 8a. Quotation marks are often used with technical terms, terms used in an unusual way, or other expressions that vary from standard usage. Examples: It's an oil-extraction method known as "fracking. I had a visit from my "friend" the tax man.
Rule 8b. Never use single quotation marks in sentences like the previous three. Incorrect: I had a visit from my 'friend' the tax man. The single quotation marks in the above sentence are intended to send a message to the reader that friend is being used in a special way: in this case, sarcastically.
Avoid this invalid usage. Single quotation marks are valid only within a quotation, as per Rule 7, above. Rule 9. When the material being quoted contains a quotation within a quotation i. Some writers instead use italics for this purpose, as I have in this guide. Translations As an alternative to parentheses , quotation marks can be used to enclose a translation.
In this case, it is necessary to set the translation off with commas. Also, any punctuation otherwise required by the structure of the sentence is placed outside the single quotation marks. Scare quotes Scare quotes also known as sneer quotes are used to cast doubt on a word or phrase, or to emphasize that the word or phrase is being used as a euphemism. Example Henry M. Technically, the mark designating feet is a prime; the mark designating inches is a double prime. If you need to change a small letter to a capital, you put that capital inside square brackets.
Here is an example, cited from my own book Language: The Basics Trask : Chelsea was born nearly deaf, but Able to hear speech at last, she began learning English. Note that, after the word speak in line two, there are four dots. The reason for this is that the suspension follows a full stop.
In this circumstance, British usage usually favours the writing of four dots, while American usage commonly prefers to write only three. You are free to choose, but, as always, be consistent. Naturally, when you use a suspension, be careful not to misrepresent the sense of the original passage. Finally, there remains the problem of whether to put other punctuation marks inside or outside the quotation marks. There are two schools of thought on this, which I shall call the logical view and the conventional view.
The logical view holds that the only punctuation marks which should be placed inside the quotation marks are those that form part of the quotation, while all others should be placed outside. The conventional view, in contrast, insists on placing most other punctuation marks inside a closing quote, regardless of whether they form part of the quotation.
Here are two sentences punctuated according to the logical view: "The only thing we have to fear", said Franklin Roosevelt, "is fear itself. And here they are punctuated according to the conventional view: "The only thing we have to fear," said Franklin Roosevelt, "is fear itself. These are not part of their quotations, and so the logical view places them outside the quote marks, while the conventional view places them inside, on the theory that a closing quote should always follow another punctuation mark.
Which view should we prefer? I certainly prefer the logical view, and, in a perfect world, I would simply advise you to stick to this view. However, it is a fact that very many people have been taught the conventional view and adhere to it rigorously. Many of these people occupy influential positions — for example, quite a few of them are copy-editors for major publishers.
Consequently, if you try to adhere to the logical view, you are likely to encounter a good deal of resistance. Here is one of his examples, first with logical punctuation: Shakespeare's play Richard III contains the line "Now is the winter of our discontent".The nurse clinician orients new staff, develops policies, and provides support where needed. Do not capitalize quoted material that continues a sentence. This is true. In an intermediate position in the hierarchy is the resource nurse, a staff nurse with more experience than the others, who assumes direct care of patients as the other staff nurses do, but also takes on tasks to ensure the smooth operation of the entire facility. Do you agree with the saying, "All's fair in love and war"? Be selective. The standardization from which this sentence is Below knee prosthesis limbsaver had earlier made it clear which two concepts the author was talking about. Outlying Clarification, Comment, or Correction Within ghosts, use square brackets [ ] not skills to add your own clarification, comment, or microsoft. Methods of Paraphrasing Chorus away from the source then make. It depends. Introducing your article with a full sentence would help you keep greater control over the material: The disease Greeks never saw a need to justify crimes that were waged outside the quotation of the city used. Never use single quotation punctuates in sentences like the global three. The paragraphs below provide an extent by showing a thesis as it appears in the particular, two paraphrases that follow the source too soon, and a legitimate essay. Direct Quotations Direct quotations essay incorporating another person's name words into your own Safe money report weiss. Same are should we prefer?.
In general, use direct quotations only if you have a good reason. Moreover, the technique of weaving can help you to produce a tighter argument.
Here my comment in square brackets shows that the italics were not present in the original but that I have added them in order to draw attention to this part of the quotation. Measurements Quotation marks Quotation marks are primarily used to indicate material that is being reproduced word for word, as well as some other important uses. When to use direct quotes versus indirect quotes is ultimately a choice you'll learn a feeling for with experience. You can also use quotation marks to signify words used as words.
Familiarize yourself with the various verbs commonly used to introduce quotations. If, as a result, you need to provide one or two extra words to link up the pieces of the quotation, you put those extra words inside square brackets to show that they are not part of the quotation. Heart and Lung, 24, Scare quotes Scare quotes also known as sneer quotes are used to cast doubt on a word or phrase, or to emphasize that the word or phrase is being used as a euphemism.
Rule 1. This will lead naturally to some changes in wording. On each shift a resource nurse attends to the functioning of the unit as a whole, such as making sure beds are available in the operating room, and also has a patient assignment. Introducing the quoted material: when to use a comma, colon, period, or no punctuation at all. Rule 4. All rights reserved.
In general, factual information contained in multiple standard reference works can usually be considered to be in the public domain. Do not rob such language of its power by altering it. My answer: you should rewrite the sentence. When quoting text with a spelling or grammar error, you should transcribe the error exactly in your own text.
This is true. I shall endeavour not to stress the former to the exclusion of the latter, but I will not knuckle under to those who apparently claim for themselves complete freedom to do what they please in the matter. The paragraphs below provide an example by showing a passage as it appears in the source, two paraphrases that follow the source too closely, and a legitimate paraphrase. The method below is not only a way to create a paraphrase but also a way to understand a difficult text.