After BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan ; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during — BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro , Harappa and Kalibangan , relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade.
During the period — BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas , the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west.
The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau , archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India , a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions.
In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas ; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions.
Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira. Buddhism , based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha , attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle Hyderabad railway division Hyderabad Railway Division is one of the Three divisions of South Central Railway zone of the Indian Railways.
The headquarters of the division is at Kacheguda railway station and its zonal headquarters is at Secunderabad. Though Hyderabad has its own division, the Hyderabad Deccan railway station itself falls under Secunderabad railway division.
Secunderabad-Manmad section known as Kacheguda-Manmad Line is an important railway route connecting the states of Telangana and Maharashtra , most stations on this route are administrated by Hyderabad division and Nanded railway division. In the Hyderabad division was further carved out to form Nanded railway division; the jurisdiction of Hyderabad division covers the erstwhile Nizam's State Railway , passing through Telangana state and Rayalaseema areas of Andhra Pradesh , a small section of The division covers a route of kilometres having total of stations.
The division is responsible for maintenance of all railway assets and estates in the twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad. Secunderabad - Gadwal Jn. Jankampet Jn. Devarkadra - Jaklair - 28 kilometres. Akanapet - Medak 16 kilometres Jaklair - Krishna 36 kilometres; the list includes the stations under the Hyderabad division and their station category Divisions of Indian Railways States and union territories of India India is a federal union comprising 29 states and 7 union territories , for a total of 36 entities.
The states and union territories are further subdivided into districts and smaller administrative divisions; the Constitution of India distributes the sovereign executive and legislative powers exercisable with respect to the territory of any State between the Union and that State.
The Indian subcontinent has been ruled by many different ethnic groups throughout its history, each instituting their own policies of administrative division in the region. During the British Raj , the original administrative structure was kept, India was divided into provinces that were directly governed by the British and princely states which were nominally controlled by a local prince or raja loyal to the British Empire , which held de facto sovereignty over the princely states.
Between and the territories of the princely states were politically integrated into the Indian Union. Most were merged into existing provinces. The new Constitution of India, which came into force on 26 January , made India a sovereign democratic republic. The new republic was declared to be a "Union of States"; the constitution of distinguished between three main types of states: Part A states, which were the former governors' provinces of British India , were ruled by an elected governor and state legislature.
The nine Part A states were Assam , Bombay , Madhya Pradesh , Orissa , Uttar Pradesh , West Bengal ; the eight Part B states were former princely states or groups of princely states, governed by a rajpramukh , the ruler of a constituent state, an elected legislature. The ten Part C states included both the former chief commissioners' provinces and some princely states, each was governed by a chief commissioner appointed by the President of India.
Andhra State was created on 1 October from the Telugu-speaking northern districts of Madras State ; the States Reorganisation Act of reorganised the states based on linguistic lines resulting in the creation of the new states. As a result of this act, Madras State retained its name with Kanyakumari district added to form Travancore-Cochin. Andhra Pradesh was created with the merger of Andhra State with the Telugu-speaking districts of Hyderabad State in The Laccadive Islands which were divided between South Canara and Malabar districts of Madras State were united and organised into the union territory of Lakshadweep.
Nagaland was formed on 1 December ; the Punjab Reorganisation Act of resulted in the creation of Haryana on 1 November and the transfer of the northern districts of Punjab to Himachal Pradesh. The act designated Chandigarh as a union territory and the shared capital of Punjab and Haryana. Madras state was renamed Tamil Nadu in North-eastern states of Manipur and Tripura were formed on 21 January Mysore State was renamed as Karnataka in On 16 May , Sikkim became the 22nd state of the Indian Union and the state's monarchy was abolished.
In November , three new states were created. The center of the advice of the Indian Army and the Indian Navy. About the selection of Bangalore South Centre. Chapter 6 Biology Flashcards Quizlet. It represents a storage of , calories per mole. The starch is not the only end-product of photosynthesis. The Services Selection Board, Allahabad has popularly been called as the Rejection board due to the low selection Lab 12 Photosynthesis - csus.
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The energy delivered to the electron acceptors is used to move hydrogen ions across the thylakoid membrane into the lumen. The cyclic reaction takes place only at photosystem I. Once the electron is displaced from the photosystem, the electron is passed down the electron acceptor molecules and returns to photosystem I, from where it was emitted, hence the name cyclic reaction.
Photosynthesis: Water photolysis Linear electron transport through a photosystem will leave the reaction center of that photosystem oxidized. Elevating another electron will first require re-reduction of the reaction center. The excited electrons lost from the reaction center P of photosystem I are replaced by transfer from plastocyanin, whose electrons come from electron transport through photosystem II. Photosystem II, as the first step of the Z-scheme, requires an external source of electrons to reduce its oxidized chlorophyll a reaction center, called P The source of electrons for photosynthesis in green plants and cyanobacteria is water.
Two water molecules are oxidized by four successive charge-separation reactions by photosystem II to yield a molecule of diatomic oxygen and four hydrogen ions. The electrons yielded are transferred to a redox-active tyrosine residue that then reduces the oxidized P This resets the ability of P to absorb another photon and release another photo-dissociated electron.
The oxidation of water is catalyzed in photosystem II by a redox-active structure that contains four manganese ions and a calcium ion; this oxygen-evolving complex binds two water molecules and contains the four oxidizing equivalents that are used to drive the water-oxidizing reaction Dolai's S-state diagrams. Photosystem II is the only known biological enzyme that carries out this oxidation of water.
The hydrogen ions are released in the thylakoid lumen and therefore contribute to the transmembrane chemiosmotic potential that leads to ATP synthesis. Oxygen is a waste product of light-dependent reactions, but the majority of organisms on Earth use oxygen for cellular respiration, including photosynthetic organisms. Photosynthesis: Light-independent reactions Photosynthesis: Calvin cycle In the light-independent or "dark" reactions, the enzyme RuBisCO captures CO2 from the atmosphere and, in a process called the Calvin cycle, it uses the newly formed NADPH and releases three-carbon sugars, which are later combined to form sucrose and starch.
The simple carbon sugars produced by photosynthesis are then used in the forming of other organic compounds, such as the building material cellulose, the precursors for lipid and amino acid biosynthesis, or as a fuel in cellular respiration. Google Scholar Marsden, M. Lake restoration by reducing external phosphorous loading: the influence from sediment phosphorous release.
Freshwater Biology, 21, — Empirical relationships between phytoplankton and zooplankton biomass in lakes. Canadian Journal of Fish and Aquatic Science, 38, — Ecology and Pollution of Indian Lakes and Reservoirs. New Delhi: Ashish. Planning for development of City of Bhopal. Nitrogen and phosphorous in fresh and marine waters. NPO-research report no. Soil Resource Atlas of Bhopal District.
Water balance of Sagar Lake. Google Scholar Novitzki, R. In Greeson, P. Lake Buena Vista, Florida, 7—10 Nov , pp. Hydrology of two small lake basins in eastern Massachusetts.
In addition, this creates a proton gradient energy gradient across the chloroplast membrane, which is used by ATP synthase in the synthesis of ATP. Chandana Ex Sr.
The excited electrons lost from the reaction center P of photosystem I are replaced by transfer from plastocyanin, whose electrons come from electron transport through photosystem II. This membrane is composed of a phospholipid inner membrane, a phospholipid outer membrane, and an intermembrane space. The headquarters of the division is at Kacheguda railway station and its zonal headquarters is at Secunderabad. The act designated Chandigarh as a union territory and the shared capital of Punjab and Haryana.
These relics are now housed in Museum at Ananthapur. Plants absorb light primarily using the pigment chlorophyll. As of March , IR's rolling stock consisted of , freight wagons, 70, passenger coaches and 11, locomotives. The antenna system is at the core of the chlorophyll molecule of the photosystem II reaction center. The oxidation of water is catalyzed in photosystem II by a redox-active structure that contains four manganese ions and a calcium ion; this oxygen-evolving complex binds two water molecules and contains the four oxidizing equivalents that are used to drive the water-oxidizing reaction Dolai's S-state diagrams. Hydrology of two small lake basins in eastern Massachusetts.
The Services Selection Board, Allahabad has popularly been called as the Rejection board due to the low selection Lab 12 Photosynthesis - csus. It attracts lot of visitors from neighbouring states of Telangana and Tamil Nadu. Photosynthesis captures 3, EJ per year in biomass.
The K. Nitrogen and phosphorous in fresh and marine waters. The real caliber capacity of an Institute lies in transforming an average student to a meritorious student, BIC has achieved a remarkable success in making. The group is strictly for SSBCrack s readers and to support them. The surface of the leaf is coated with a water-resistant waxy cuticle that protects the leaf from excessive evaporation of water and decreases the absorption of ultraviolet or blue light to reduce heating. Kurnool is located at
Eutriophication of waters: monitoring, assessment and control. Using a diagram to illustrate 12 structures and functions of the cell membrane. Time variation effects the potential of solar energy because during the nighttime there is little solar radiation on the surface of the Earth for solar panels to absorb; this limits the amount of energy. On 16 May , Sikkim became the 22nd state of the Indian Union and the state's monarchy was abolished.
Akanapet - Medak 16 kilometres Jaklair - Krishna 36 kilometres; the list includes the stations under the Hyderabad division and their station category Divisions of Indian Railways States and union territories of India India is a federal union comprising 29 states and 7 union territories , for a total of 36 entities. National Highway 40 runs from Kurnool to Chittoor are the major highways passing through the city; the city has a total road length of
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This product is also referred to as 3-phosphoglyceraldehyde PGAL or, more generically, as triose phosphate. Note: We do not have any whatsapp group yet. Some of saline lakes are useful sources of some important minerals as well. Planning for development of City of Bhopal. Soil Resource Atlas of Bhopal District. Summer streamflow and water level in a mid-latitude forested swamp.
The electrons yielded are transferred to a redox-active tyrosine residue that then reduces the oxidized P
The triose phosphates not thus "recycled" often condense to form hexose phosphates, which ultimately yield sucrose, starch and cellulose. About the selection of Bangalore South Centre. The sugars produced during carbon metabolism yield carbon skeletons that can be used for other metabolic reactions like the production of amino acids and lipids.