A few days later, following a basic light microscopy evaluation, the CESS retracted this as they noticed the particles resembled spores,    and because debris from a meteor would not have continued to fall from the stratosphere onto the same area while unaffected by wind. A sample was, therefore, handed over to the Tropical Botanical Garden and Research Institute TBGRI for microbiological studies, where the spores were allowed to grow in a medium suitable for growth of algae and fungi.
The inoculated Petri dishes and conical flasks were incubated for three to seven days and the cultures were observed under a microscope. Field verification showed that the region had plenty of such lichens. Samples of lichen taken from Changanacherry area, when cultured in an algal growth medium, also showed the presence of the same species of algae. Both samples from rainwater and from trees produced the same kind of algae, indicating that the spores seen in the rainwater most probably came from local sources Trentepohlia on Cryptomeria japonica bark The site was again visited on 16 August and it was found that almost all the trees, rocks and even lamp posts in the region were covered with Trentepohlia estimated to be in sufficient amounts to generate the quantity of spores seen in the rainwater.
A lichen is not a single organism, but the result of a partnership symbiosis between a fungus and an alga or cyanobacterium. The report also stated that there was no meteoric, volcanic or desert dust origin present in the rainwater and that its colour was not due to any dissolved gases or pollutants. However, for these lichen to release their spores simultaneously, it is necessary for them to enter their reproductive phase at about the same time.
The CESS report noted that while this may be a possibility, it is quite improbable. CESS scientists noted that "While the cause of the colour in the rainfall has been identified, finding the answers to these questions is a challenge.
Sasidharan Pillai, a senior scientific assistant in the Indian Meteorological Department, proposed dust and acidic material from an eruption of Mayon Volcano in the Philippines as an explanation for the coloured rain and the "burnt" leaves. This hypothesis was also ruled out as the particles were neither acidic nor of volcanic origin, but were spores.
But not always strongly. Sometimes the fall of red rain seems to have occurred after an air-burst, as from a meteor exploding in air; other times the odd rainfall is merely recorded in the same year as the appearance of a comet.
While the CESS report said there was no apparent relationship between the loud sound possibly a sonic boom and flash of light which preceded the red rain, to Louis and Kumar it was a key piece of evidence. They proposed that a meteor from a comet containing the red particles caused the sound and flash and when it disintegrated over Kerala it released the red particles which slowly fell to the ground.
However, they omitted an explanation on how debris from a meteor continued to fall in the same area over a period of two months while unaffected by winds. Their work indicated that the particles were of biological origin consistent with the CESS report , however, they invoked the panspermia hypothesis to explain the presence of cells in a supposed fall of meteoric material. These claims and data have yet to be verified and reported in any peer reviewed publication.
In Louis and Kumar published a paper in Astrophysics and Space Science entitled "The red rain phenomenon of Kerala and its possible extraterrestrial origin"  which reiterated their arguments that the red rain was biological matter from an extraterrestrial source but made no mention of their previous claims to having induced the cells to grow.
The team also observed the cells using phase contrast fluorescence microscopy, and they concluded that: "The fluorescence behaviour of the red cells is shown to be in remarkable correspondence with the extended red emission observed in the Red Rectangle Nebula and other galactic and extragalactic dust clouds , suggesting, though not proving an extraterrestrial origin. However, since rain forests have rainfall spread evenly through the year, they do not have a wet season.
For example, in Mexico it is known as "storm season". Different names are given to the various short "seasons" of the year by the Aboriginal tribes of Northern Australia : the wet season typically experienced there from December to March is called Gudjewg. The precise meaning of the word is disputed, although it is widely accepted to relate to the severe thunderstorms, flooding, and abundant vegetation growth commonly experienced at this time.
In tropical areas, when the monsoon arrives, high daytime high temperatures drop and overnight low temperatures increase, thus reducing diurnal temperature variation.
A lichen is not a single organism, but the result of a partnership symbiosis between a fungus and an alga or cyanobacterium. In , Gabriel Fahrenheit created a reliable scale for measuring temperature with a mercury-type thermometer. Davidson says to the Macphails, "It's a true rebirth. Thus by the end of the 18th century meteorologists had access to large quantities of reliable weather data.
Moisture is removed by orographic lift, leaving drier air see katabatic wind on the descending and generally warming, leeward side where a rain shadow is observed. Davidson says to the Macphails, "It's a true rebirth. This several-hour interval is insufficient to adequately document precipitation because of the transient nature of most precipitation systems as well as the inability of a single satellite to appropriately capture the typical daily cycle of precipitation at a given location. The absence of DNA was key to Louis and Kumar's hypothesis that the cells were of extraterrestrial origins. Some countries will supplement the paid weather observer with a network of volunteers to obtain precipitation data and other types of weather for sparsely populated areas.
From her room is heard the sound of a gramophone and men's voices. When the next period of rain begins it may take no more than one or two drops to tip the lever. Further, cloud tops with a lot of small-scale variation are likely to be more vigorous than smooth-topped clouds. There was a debate about whether Nierenberg delayed to release the report. Samples of lichen taken from Changanacherry area, when cultured in an algal growth medium, also showed the presence of the same species of algae. An example of this effect is the low pH of rain which falls in Scandinavia.
The wet season is a time when air quality improves,  freshwater quality improves,   and vegetation grows significantly. Convective precipitation falls over a certain area for a relatively short time, as convective clouds have limited horizontal extent. It also funded extensive studies on atmospheric processes and potential control programs. He stated that a rainbow summit can not appear higher than 42 degrees above the horizon. CESS scientists noted that "While the cause of the colour in the rainfall has been identified, finding the answers to these questions is a challenge. Cuneiform inscriptions on Babylonian tablets included associations between thunder and rain.
The results were consistent with a marine origin or a terrestrial plant that uses a C4 photosynthetic pathway. Macphail and his wife, and Davidson a missionary and his wife the story is told from Macphail's point of view. Some radio and television weather forecasters are professional meteorologists, while others are reporters weather specialist, weatherman, etc.
When it gets cold, Mars has precipitation that most likely takes the form of ice needles, rather than rain or snow. Albert the Great was the first to propose that each drop of falling rain had the form of a small sphere, and that this form meant that the rainbow was produced by light interacting with each raindrop.
The India Meteorological Department was established to follow tropical cyclone and monsoon. Reich called his research "Cosmic Orgone Engineering". However, they omitted an explanation on how debris from a meteor continued to fall in the same area over a period of two months while unaffected by winds.
The pH of the sample was measured to be 4.
Character of the rainfall[ edit ] Wet season storm at night in Darwin , Australia. This several-hour interval is insufficient to adequately document precipitation because of the transient nature of most precipitation systems as well as the inability of a single satellite to appropriately capture the typical daily cycle of precipitation at a given location. As a result, the modern global record of precipitation largely depends on satellite observations. Louis then incorrectly reported on 29 August in the non-peer reviewed online physics archive "arxiv. Research into cyclones and air flow[ edit ] General circulation of the Earth's atmosphere: The westerlies and trade winds are part of the Earth's atmospheric circulation. Each of the state storehouses were equipped with a rain gauge to classify land for taxation purposes.
If the rainfall does not vary, the water level in the container remains constant, and while the drum rotates, the pen's mark it is more or less a horizontal line, proportional to the amount of water that has fallen. Any particulates of liquid or solid water in the atmosphere are known as hydrometeors. The pH of the water was found to be around 7 neutral. They are therefore resistant to ultraviolet and gamma radiation , desiccation , lysozyme , temperature, starvation and chemical disinfectants. Another problem encountered is when the temperature is close to or below freezing.