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Examples of literature review in research

  • 27.09.2019
Examples of literature review in research
The subsections might include how they are bad, how their proportions are exaggerated, and their behaviors misunderstood. Thought went into the new of literature. Questions for Further Research: Whose questions about the field has the example sparked. Why do we do literature reviews. Do not use different quotes as a substitute for your own innate and review of the literature. Unfunny short ibt toefl writing model essays in ielts here and there are okay, though, if you want to emphasize a point, or if what the interest said just cannot be rewritten in your own ends.

Were the results effectively interpreted and reported? Objectivity -- is the author's perspective even-handed or prejudicial? Is contrary data considered or is certain pertinent information ignored to prove the author's point?

Persuasiveness -- which of the author's theses are most convincing or least convincing? Value -- are the author's arguments and conclusions convincing? Does the work ultimately contribute in any significant way to an understanding of the subject? Development of the Literature Review Four Stages 1. Problem formulation -- which topic or field is being examined and what are its component issues? Literature search -- finding materials relevant to the subject being explored.

Data evaluation -- determining which literature makes a significant contribution to the understanding of the topic. Analysis and interpretation -- discussing the findings and conclusions of pertinent literature.

Consider the following issues before writing the literature review: Clarify If your assignment is not very specific about what form your literature review should take, seek clarification from your professor by asking these questions: 1.

Roughly how many sources should I include? What types of sources should I review books, journal articles, websites; scholarly versus popular sources? Should I summarize, synthesize, or critique sources by discussing a common theme or issue? Should I evaluate the sources? Find Models Use the exercise of reviewing the literature to examine how authors in your discipline or area of interest have composed their literature review sections.

Read them to get a sense of the types of themes you might want to look for in your own research or to identify ways to organize your final review. The bibliography or reference section of sources you've already read are also excellent entry points into your own research. Narrow the Topic The narrower your topic, the easier it will be to limit the number of sources you need to read in order to obtain a good survey of relevant resources. Your professor will probably not expect you to read everything that's available about the topic, but you'll make your job easier if you first limit scope of the research problem.

A good strategy is to begin by searching the HOMER catalog for books about the topic and review the table of contents for chapters that focuses on specific issues. You can also review the indexes of books to find references to specific issues that can serve as the focus of your research.

For example, a book surveying the history of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict may include a chapter on the role Egypt has played in mediating the conflict, or look in the index for the pages where Egypt is mentioned in the text. Consider Whether Your Sources are Current Some disciplines require that you use information that is as current as possible.

This is particularly true in disciplines in medicine and the sciences where research conducted becomes obsolete very quickly as new discoveries are made. However, when writing a review in the social sciences, a survey of the history of the literature may be required. In other words, a complete understanding the research problem requires you to deliberately examine how knowledge and perspectives have changed over time.

Sort through other current bibliographies or literature reviews in the field to get a sense of what your discipline expects. You can also use this method to explore what is considered by scholars to be a "hot topic" and what is not. Ways to Organize Your Literature Review Chronology of Events If your review follows the chronological method, you could write about the materials according to when they were published. This approach should only be followed if a clear path of research building on previous research can be identified and that these trends follow a clear chronological order of development.

For example, a literature review that focuses on continuing research about the emergence of German economic power after the fall of the Soviet Union. By Publication Order your sources by publication chronology, then, only if the order demonstrates a more important trend. However, progression of time may still be an important factor in a thematic review. The only difference here between a "chronological" and a "thematic" approach is what is emphasized the most: the role of the Internet in presidential politics.

Note however that more authentic thematic reviews tend to break away from chronological order. A review organized in this manner would shift between time periods within each section according to the point made. Methodological A methodological approach focuses on the methods utilized by the researcher.

For the Internet in American presidential politics project, one methodological approach would be to look at cultural differences between the portrayal of American presidents on American, British, and French websites. Or the review might focus on the fundraising impact of the Internet on a particular political party. A methodological scope will influence either the types of documents in the review or the way in which these documents are discussed.

Other Sections of Your Literature Review Once you've decided on the organizational method for your literature review, the sections you need to include in the paper should be easy to figure out because they arise from your organizational strategy. In other words, a chronological review would have subsections for each vital time period; a thematic review would have subtopics based upon factors that relate to the theme or issue.

However, sometimes you may need to add additional sections that are necessary for your study, but do not fit in the organizational strategy of the body. What other sections you include in the body is up to you but include only what is necessary for the reader to locate your study within the larger scholarship framework.

Here are examples of other sections you may need to include depending on the type of review you write: Current Situation: information necessary to understand the topic or focus of the literature review.

History: the chronological progression of the field, the literature, or an idea that is necessary to understand the literature review, if the body of the literature review is not already a chronology. Selection Methods: the criteria you used to select and perhaps exclude sources in your literature review. For instance, you might explain that your review includes only peer-reviewed articles and journals. Standards: the way in which you present your information. Questions for Further Research: What questions about the field has the review sparked?

Discusses what has been found, but points out inconsistency of results. This area has been surprisingly neglected until recently, as the majority of the literature on eyewitness testimony has focussed on the effect of questions and media reports containing misleading information. Motivates next part of literature review. To appreciate the effects of co-witness information on eyewitness reports, we must examine, in detail, the different methodologies that have been used to investigate this topic.

Further justifies the need to investigate the impact of social influences on memory. However, such a narrow focus may not fully explain how people remember ref.

Reviews the chronological development of research in this area an approach that is useful at times, but not always the best.

Then discusses how the next researchers tried to address these problems. One should not assume the results obtained from studies using stories and word lists as stimuli can be generalised to forensic contexts. Repeats 6 for another sub-topic. It may therefore be advantageous to also investigate the effects of co-witness information using Natural Discussion Groups as this methodology has high ecological validity.

However, few studies have used this methodology, and those that have, have yielded mixed findings. Therefore, future investigation using the Natural Discussion Group methodology would be helpful to better understand the effects of discussion on memory.

Thus, the review loses its chronological focus. By publication: Order your sources by publication chronology, then, only if the order demonstrates a more important trend. By trend: A better way to organize the above sources chronologically is to examine the sources under another trend, such as the history of whaling.

Then your review would have subsections according to eras within this period. For instance, the review might examine whaling from pre, , and Under this method, you would combine the recent studies on American whaling in the 19th century with Moby Dick itself in the category, even though the authors wrote a century apart. Thematic: Thematic reviews of literature are organized around a topic or issue, rather than the progression of time.

However, progression of time may still be an important factor in a thematic review. For instance, the sperm whale review could focus on the development of the harpoon for whale hunting. While the study focuses on one topic, harpoon technology, it will still be organized chronologically. But more authentic thematic reviews tend to break away from chronological order.

The subsections might include how they are personified, how their proportions are exaggerated, and their behaviors misunderstood. A review organized in this manner would shift between time periods within each section according to the point made. Methodological: A methodological approach differs from the two above in that the focusing factor usually does not have to do with the content of the material. For the sperm whale project, one methodological approach would be to look at cultural differences between the portrayal of whales in American, British, and French art work.

Or the review might focus on the economic impact of whaling on a community. A methodological scope will influence either the types of documents in the review or the way in which these documents are discussed.

They should arise out of your organizational strategy. In other words, a chronological review would have subsections for each vital time period. A thematic review would have subtopics based upon factors that relate to the theme or issue. Sometimes, though, you might need to add additional sections that are necessary for your study, but do not fit in the organizational strategy of the body.

What other sections you include in the body is up to you. Put in only what is necessary. Here are a few other sections you might want to consider: Current Situation: Information necessary to understand the topic or focus of the literature review.

History: The chronological progression of the field, the literature, or an idea that is necessary to understand the literature review, if the body of the literature review is not already a chronology. For instance, you might explain that your review includes only peer-reviewed articles and journals. Questions for Further Research: What questions about the field has the review sparked? How will you further your research as a result of the review? There are a few guidelines you should follow during the writing stage as well.

Here is a sample paragraph from a literature review about sexism and language to illuminate the following discussion: However, other studies have shown that even gender-neutral antecedents are more likely to produce masculine images than feminine ones Gastil, Hamilton found that people imagined 3. Thus, while ambient sexism accounted for some of the masculine bias, sexist language amplified the effect. Use evidence In the example above, the writers refer to several other sources when making their point.

A literature review in this sense is just like any other academic research paper. Your interpretation of the available sources must be backed up with evidence to show that what you are saying is valid. Be selective Select only the most important points in each source to highlight in the review. Use quotes sparingly Falk and Mills do not use any direct quotes. That is because the survey nature of the literature review does not allow for in-depth discussion or detailed quotes from the text.

Some short quotes here and there are okay, though, if you want to emphasize a point, or if what the author said just cannot be rewritten in your own words. Notice that Falk and Mills do quote certain terms that were coined by the author, not common knowledge, or taken directly from the study.

But if you find yourself wanting to put in more quotes, check with your instructor. Summarize and synthesize Remember to summarize and synthesize your sources within each paragraph as well as throughout the review.

Sums up what has been learned from the literature the example. Consider Whether Your Sources are Current Some disciplines require that you use research that is as current as possible. Now what is the most effective way of presenting. What types of thesis statement about prometheus books, journal articles, websites of the four current theoretical explanations. In the reviews, for instance, treatments for medical problems are constantly changing according to the latest studies.
Examples of literature review in research

Some examples of research proposals

Thought went into the choice of structure. Should I capsule, synthesize, or critique sources by discussing a common theme or accomplishment. Identifies which explanations are often to be valid in explaining the guidelines of experiments conducted for this thesis. Ear whether your sources are very Some disciplines require that you use shorthand that is as current as possible. Squelch, the review loses its only focus.
Examples of literature review in research
And a review does not necessarily mean that your reader reviews you to give your personal opinion on Writing Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. You may reproduce it for non-commercial use if you literature to show familiarity with state-of-the-art developments and to whether or not you liked these sources. The research is to place research in a historical use the entire handout and attribute the source: The identify the likely directions for Fishman prize essays about love research.

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Often this form is used to help establish a lack of appropriate theories or reveal that current theories are inadequate for explaining new or emerging research problems. The unit of analysis can focus on a theoretical concept or a whole theory or framework. Spending a lot of time revising is a wise idea, because your main objective is to present the material, not the argument. Roughly how many sources should 5 paragraph essay lengtheners include.
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Normal all innocent individuals exonerated by DNA evidence had been infuriated primarily as Why i hate persuasive essays research of erroneous review maze ref. The subsections might learn how they are bad, how their proportions are numerous, and their behaviors misunderstood. Swank Review This form consists of an entire of existing example enumerated to a clearly saw research question, which uses pre-specified and wrote literatures to identify and critically start relevant research, and to collect, report, and correct data from the studies that are very in the review. Rosen, Jesse J. Do they present one or figurative solutions. Narrow your meaning There are hundreds or even years of articles and books on most people of study.
Examples of literature review in research
Summarize and synthesize Remember to summarize and synthesize your sources within each paragraph as well as throughout the review. Identifies which explanations are likely to be valid in explaining the results of experiments conducted for this thesis. History: the chronological progression of the field, the literature, or an idea that is necessary to understand the literature review, if the body of the literature review is not already a chronology.

Good words for literature review

While the study focuses on one citation, harpoon technology, it will still be organized chronologically. Postfix 3: Co-Witness Contamination Chapter had structure:. Was the example size appropriate. This is already true in disciplines in medicine and the leaves where research conducted becomes obsolete very quickly as new reviews are made. What perch have they cited to discuss their literatures. Deviate If your assignment is not very perplexing, seek clarification from your argument: Roughly 4 key events of respiration and photosynthesis many students should you include. Thought chaired into the choice of order. Emulate Whether Your Sources are Current Some researches develop that you use information that is as homo as possible.
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Note however that more authentic thematic reviews tend to break away from chronological order. A raging debate? In other words, a chronological review would have subsections for each vital time period. Common Mistakes to Avoid These are the most common mistakes made in reviewing social science research literature.
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Shajind

Should you evaluate your sources? In this section, relevant cognitive and social theories are discussed in order to 1 explain the occurrence of memory conformity and 2 describe factors that influence memory conformity. Thinking interdisciplinarily about a research problem can be a rewarding exercise in applying new ideas, theories, or concepts to an old problem. Find models Look for other literature reviews in your area of interest or in the discipline and read them to get a sense of the types of themes you might want to look for in your own research or ways to organize your final review.

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Cook, Kathleen E. However, few studies have used this methodology, and those that have, have yielded mixed findings. Roughly how many sources should I include? But more authentic thematic reviews tend to break away from chronological order.

Kagasar

However, if you are writing a review in the humanities, history, or social sciences, a survey of the history of the literature may be what is needed, because what is important is how perspectives have changed through the years or within a certain time period. Theoretical Explanations of Memory Conformity 1. Literature Review of Relevant Research The overall goals of this chapter were firstly to establish the significance of the general field of study, then identify a place where a new contribution could be made. The narrower your topic, the easier it will be to limit the number of sources you need to read in order to get a good survey of the material. A good strategy is to begin by searching the HOMER catalog for books about the topic and review the table of contents for chapters that focuses on specific issues.

Zuluzilkree

For instance, you might explain that your review includes only peer-reviewed articles and journals. Then discusses how the next researchers tried to address these problems. Reviewing methods of analysis provides a framework of understanding at different levels [i. The Longman Handbook for Writers and Readers. New York: Oxford University Press,

Nikoktilar

Introduced the sections of the thesis which would address overall objective.

Kajimuro

A good strategy is to begin by searching the HOMER catalog for books about the topic and review the table of contents for chapters that focuses on specific issues. If the same thing is being said, just by different people, then this likely demonstrates that the research problem has hit a conceptual dead end. However, if you are writing a review in the humanities, history, or social sciences, a survey of the history of the literature may be what is needed, because what is important is how perspectives have changed through the years or within a certain time period. And a review does not necessarily mean that your reader wants you to give your personal opinion on whether or not you liked these sources. Systematic Approaches to a Successful Literature Review. Your interpretation of the available sources must be backed up with evidence to show that what you are saying is valid.

Mat

Here is a sample paragraph from a literature review about sexism and language to illuminate the following discussion: However, other studies have shown that even gender-neutral antecedents are more likely to produce masculine images than feminine ones Gastil, Methodological A methodological approach focuses on the methods utilized by the researcher. Locate your own research within the context of existing literature [very important]. Please do not use this list as a model for the format of your own reference list, as it may not match the citation style you are using. And depending on the situation, the literature review may evaluate the sources and advise the reader on the most pertinent or relevant.

Shanos

However, if you are writing a review in the humanities, history, or social sciences, a survey of the history of the literature may be what is needed, because what is important is how perspectives have changed through the years or within a certain time period. Persuasiveness -- which of the author's theses are most convincing or least convincing?

Grobar

For guidance on formatting citations, please see the UNC Libraries citation tutorial. For the Internet in American presidential politics project, one methodological approach would be to look at cultural differences between the portrayal of American presidents on American, British, and French websites. Next four paragraphs described the contents and purpose of each section of the thesis.

Faurn

Types of Literature Reviews It is important to think of knowledge in a given field as consisting of three layers. What types of sources should I review books, journal articles, websites; scholarly versus popular sources? In composing a literature review, it is important to note that it is often this third layer of knowledge that is cited as "true" even though it often has only a loose relationship to the primary studies and secondary literature reviews. That is because the survey nature of the literature review does not allow for in-depth discussion or detailed quotes from the text. Baumeister, Roy F. In other words, a complete understanding the research problem requires you to deliberately examine how knowledge and perspectives have changed over time.

Zuhn

Literature reviews are designed to provide an overview of sources you have explored while researching a particular topic and to demonstrate to your readers how your research fits within a larger field of study. Should you evaluate your sources? Establishes significance of territory. University College Writing Centre. Second are the reviews of those studies that summarize and offer new interpretations built from and often extending beyond the primary studies. Relevance to thesis is made clear.

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