Is there an aspect of the field that is missing? How well do they present the material and do they portray it according to an appropriate theory? Do they reveal a trend in the field? A raging debate? Pick one of these themes to focus the organization of your review. Here are a couple of examples: The current trend in treatment for congestive heart failure combines surgery and medicine.
More and more cultural studies scholars are accepting popular media as a subject worthy of academic consideration. Now what is the most effective way of presenting the information? What are the most important topics, subtopics, etc. And in what order should you present them? The following provides a brief description of the content of each: Introduction: Gives a quick idea of the topic of the literature review, such as the central theme or organizational pattern.
Body: Contains your discussion of sources and is organized either chronologically, thematically, or methodologically see below for more information on each. Where might the discussion proceed? Organizing the body Once you have the basic categories in place, then you must consider how you will present the sources themselves within the body of your paper.
Create an organizational method to focus this section even further. But these articles refer to some British biological studies performed on whales in the early 18th century.
So you check those out. Then you look up a book written in with information on how sperm whales have been portrayed in other forms of art, such as in Alaskan poetry, in French painting, or on whale bone, as the whale hunters in the late 19th century used to do.
This makes you wonder about American whaling methods during the time portrayed in Moby Dick, so you find some academic articles published in the last five years on how accurately Herman Melville portrayed the whaling scene in his novel.
Now consider some typical ways of organizing the sources into a review: Chronological: If your review follows the chronological method, you could write about the materials above according to when they were published. For instance, first you would talk about the British biological studies of the 18th century, then about Moby Dick, published in , then the book on sperm whales in other art , and finally the biology articles s and the recent articles on American whaling of the 19th century.
But there is relatively no continuity among subjects here. Thus, the review loses its chronological focus.
By publication: Order your sources by publication chronology, then, only if the order demonstrates a more important trend. By trend: A better way to organize the above sources chronologically is to examine the sources under another trend, such as the history of whaling. Then your review would have subsections according to eras within this period. For instance, the review might examine whaling from pre, , and Under this method, you would combine the recent studies on American whaling in the 19th century with Moby Dick itself in the category, even though the authors wrote a century apart.
Thematic: Thematic reviews of literature are organized around a topic or issue, rather than the progression of time. However, progression of time may still be an important factor in a thematic review. For instance, the sperm whale review could focus on the development of the harpoon for whale hunting. While the study focuses on one topic, harpoon technology, it will still be organized chronologically.
But more authentic thematic reviews tend to break away from chronological order. The subsections might include how they are personified, how their proportions are exaggerated, and their behaviors misunderstood. A review organized in this manner would shift between time periods within each section according to the point made.
Methodological: A methodological approach differs from the two above in that the focusing factor usually does not have to do with the content of the material. For the sperm whale project, one methodological approach would be to look at cultural differences between the portrayal of whales in American, British, and French art work. Or the review might focus on the economic impact of whaling on a community.
A methodological scope will influence either the types of documents in the review or the way in which these documents are discussed. They should arise out of your organizational strategy. In other words, a chronological review would have subsections for each vital time period.
A thematic review would have subtopics based upon factors that relate to the theme or issue. However, a long list of scholarly articles comes in front of searchers when they try to find some research material relevant to their understudy subject. Here, there is a need to become very conscious in making the selection of reference sources. The first thing to consider while choosing the reference source is the time of its origin and validity.
Always try to choose the latest reference source due to having maximum validity. The next thing to consider while selecting the reference source is the popularity and authenticity of that scholarly journal in which the chosen article has been published. It is not good enough that article has been published in any one of the research journals. The credibility of a research journal is much important to consider.
After choosing the reference articles from reputed and authentic journals, categorize and rank them according to the importance of the article. The most relevant scholarly articles are considered those that not only support your own theory but taken from the latest and well-recognized research journals. Let our qualified professional writers lend you the gold nuggets of information that the only experience can bring. We have worked with students on many literature review essay projects in the past and the knowledge we have gained from each one of them will work exponentially to benefit you.
Establishes a reason for this chapter and states the purpose. In this section, relevant cognitive and social theories are discussed in order to 1 explain the occurrence of memory conformity and 2 describe factors that influence memory conformity. Thought went into the choice of order. There was some comparison between later and earlier explanations and the synthesised conclusions that can be drawn.
Supporting evidence … This suggests that the misinformation effect may be due at least partially to memory impairment, rather than just biased guessing. Sums up what has been learned from the review of the four current theoretical explanations.
Identifies which explanations are likely to be valid in explaining the results of experiments conducted for this thesis. Aims to resolve theoretical uncertainties. Discusses methodological issues in achieving aim. Introduces another question of interest and reviews what has been found so far.
For example, … This section of the literature review examines factors influencing whether or not a person is likely to conform that are 1 in the situation, and 2 within the individual. Relevance to thesis is made clear. Study 3: Co-Witness Contamination Chapter had structure:.And in what order should you present them? Franklin Watts. Literature reviews are written occasionally in the humanities, but mostly in the sciences and social sciences; in experiment and lab reports, they constitute a section of the paper. Continue reading. These binaries can be associated with the Manichean binaries discussed by Frantz Fanon in his book entitled The Wretched of the Earth. Everyone that has ever heard a voice, has heard music.
Repeats 6 for another sub-topic. However, a vast national study by the United Way Worldwide identified two critical components that must exist in order for families to attain financial stability: stable adequate income and stable adequate financial resources Valley of the Sun United Way, n. What we noticed is that there were a lot of articles regarding quality issues related to Sony laptops. For instance, the review might examine whaling from pre, , and What should I do before writing the literature review? Sums up what has been learned from the review of the four current theoretical explanations.
They require a lot of time, effort, and attention to critical detail. The motivation for behavior may also be attributed to less- apparent reasons such as altruism or morality.
In Libya graffiti was used to express freedom, it was used to voice forbidden thoughts in public but today graffiti is less about politics and religion and more about personal style and art Gopnik If you have limited time to conduct research, literature reviews can give you an overview or act as a stepping stone. Do they reveal a trend in the field? In Russia the pair survived an unfortunate sledge massacre. But these articles refer to some British biological studies performed on whales in the early 18th century. The selected articles all focused on the major effect of poverty on children, and were sorted into four sub-categories or themes based upon a specific focus areas of this complex and not yet fully understood issue.
Now what is the most effective way of presenting the information? This indicates that people may not maintain a good oral health and do not have enough knowledge to having good oral health In order to examine the Chinese case, it is necessary to firstly review the literature on women and industrialisation world-widely. The subsections might include how they are personified, how their proportions are exaggerated, and their behaviors misunderstood. But if you find yourself wanting to put in more quotes, check with your instructor.
A review of the literature in the area of reading comprehension of elementary-age students shows two principle areas of focus Also, since the price of hand held scanners has dramatically dropped
Aims to resolve theoretical uncertainties. But if you find yourself wanting to put in more quotes, check with your instructor. Nowadays, the internet is the basic source of searching any research material.
This kind of transformative learning comes from deep reflection and helps students to develop a holistic sense of what they are learning.
Literature reviews are written occasionally in the humanities, but mostly in the sciences and social sciences; in experiment and lab reports, they constitute a section of the paper.
For guidance on formatting citations, please see the UNC Libraries citation tutorial. Students often get confused by the meaning and purpose of this part. One idea that was constant was the themes, symbols and motifs used throughout. They also require a solid and reputable source of references in great number to back up what is being detailed. In rare cases, breast cancer can start in other areas of the breast.
The motivation for behavior may also be attributed to less- apparent reasons such as altruism or morality.