The overall pooled prevalence of H. The trend of H. Conclusion The prevalence of H. Although the trend of infection showed a decreasing pattern; appropriate use of eradication therapy, health education primarily to improve knowledge and awareness on the transmission dynamics of the bacteria, behavioral changes, adequate sanitation, population screening and diagnosis using multiple tests are required to reduce H. Recognizing the bacteria as a priority issue and designing gastric cancer screening policies are also recommended.
The prevalence of H. The global estimate of H. This difference has been related to geography, age, ethnicity, socioeconomic factors, and methods of diagnosis and eradication therapy [ 1 , 6 , 7 ]. Diseases associated with H. The burden of H. Failure to H. In , World Health Organization WHO has published lists of 16 bacteria that pose the greatest risk for human health. In addition, recommendations are emerging to change approaches to management of H. The success of these developments needs knowledge of prevalence of H.
In Ethiopia, the prevalence of H. Annually H. The infection is acquired early in life and is associated with the development of chronic gastritis, gastric ulcers, gastric cancer, peptic ulcer disease, duodenal ulcers and stomach mucosal atrophy .
In Cameroon the prevalence of H. In both developing and developed countries, high prevalence of H. The infection generally becomes less common as standards of living rise. The sources of H. Childhood appears to be the principal period during which H. Person-to-person transmission within the family has been considered as major modes of transmission by epidemiological and microbiological studies, both in developed and developing countries. This study to the best of our knowledge, will be the first study to assess the knowledge and practice toward H.
Materials and Methods Study design This cross sectional prevalence study was carried out using data collected from January to March from 4 health districts ;Bamenda, Ndop, Tubah, Kumbo of the Northwest region of Cameroon. Ethical clearance was obtained from the ethical committee of the different hospitals.
The study populations consisted of 5, out patients with gastrointestinal disorder symptoms and were screened for H. Qualitative data collection The questionnaire was designed based on a framework to assess knowledge and practices as defined by the World Health Organization Guide to Developing Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice Surveys. The pre-tested open ended questionnaire was administered to evaluate the knowledge and practices on Helicobacter pylori.
The questionnaire consisted of 3 parts with a total of 25 questions. The socio-demographic part consisted of questions on; age, sex, level of education and occupation.
Knowledge was assessed using 8 questions with a total score of 41 including; definition of the disease 1 point , the causes 2 points , mode of transmission and risk factors 2 points , signs and symptoms 9 points , complications 3 points , diagnosis 3 points , methods of treatment 4 points and prevention 9 points. In a similar way, practice was accessed using 6 questions with a total score of 11 and this include food preparation 3 points , source of drinkable water 1 point , type of toilets used 1 point , personal hygienic practices 3 points , if tested before 1 point and participating in any educational talk on H.
In all, questionnaires were given out and the questions were read and explained to those who could neither read nor write and their responses noted. A score of 1 was given to any right answer and 0 to any wrong answer. Laboratory procedure Five milliliters of venous blood was collected in an anticoagulated potassium EDTA Ethylene Diamine Tetracetic Acid tubes using standard laboratory procedures.
The sample was centrifuge at rpm to obtain plasma.Therefore, this review was conducted to estimate the pooled prevalence of H. Costas et al. Yet, it should be noted that it is not possible to convert a percentage DNA-DNA hybridisation value into a percentage of whole-genome sequence similarity Vandamme et al.
In this method, bacterial cells are embedded in agarose plugs in order to obtain intact DNA. At present, PFGE patterns of selected food borne pathogens certain Escherichia coli and salmonella can be compared rapidly in real time through the internet, such as PulseNet. Several geographical regions are underrepresented in the human migration studies performed so far, in particular Central Africa, Northeast Africa, Central Asia and Siberia. Joint Bone Spine. It has been inferred recently on the basis of multiple clones of a bp fragment of the urease gene, that humans can be infected with at least three different variants of "H. In addition to these requirements, it is important to note that at least two phenotypical differences should exist to other defined species Vandamme et al.
Qualitative data collection The questionnaire was designed based on a framework to assess knowledge and practices as defined by the World Health Organization Guide to Developing Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice Surveys.
Restriction fragment length polymorphism RFLP of 23S rRNA gene Despite the current popularity of sequence-based analyses, they are not rapid, cheap or easy species identification methods for routine clinical laboratories. However, comprehensive review has not been done on its prevalence and associated factors in Ethiopia. Moreover, the brush cytology technique has proved superior to both the urease test, and conventional histological examinations, when examining for "gastrospirilla" in canine or feline gastric samples Happonen et al. Liu Y. It is known that there are both conserved and variable regions within the gene, and genus or species specific primers or probes may be designed if sequences are known. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technol.
Qualitative data collection The questionnaire was designed based on a framework to assess knowledge and practices as defined by the World Health Organization Guide to Developing Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice Surveys. Costas et al. Region, Cameroon. The density of the bacteria in the biopsy has a direct correlation with the sensitivity of the test, both with H. Dent et al. Al Asqah M.
An interesting hypothesis of H. The electric current is changed between the opposite pair of electrodes, thus forming a pulse time. The overall pooled prevalence of H. The trend of H. PCR PCR polymerase chain reaction is a powerful method for detecting low numbers of bacteria from clinical material and does not require viable bacteria Persing et al.
The taxonomy of the "gastrospirilla" is especially complex. Increasing levels of income and college education were associated with decreasing prevalence of H. This study to the best of our knowledge, will be the first study to assess the knowledge and practice toward H. Krajden S.
This led to the development of rapid 60 minute tests that detected this enzyme directly in biopsy samples colonised with helicobacters. Loster B. In both developing and developed countries, high prevalence of H. De Souza Concalves L. In addition, recommendations are emerging to change approaches to management of H.
Therefore; this study was done to estimate the pooled prevalence of H. Overall, A more complex situation is evident when molecular sequencing data is used as a sole criterion to define species boundaries. The trend of H.
Recognizing the bacteria as a priority issue and designing gastric cancer screening policies are also recommended.
An interesting hypothesis of H. More recently, it has been noted that spiral bacteria without periplasmic fibrils are most commonly found in the gastric mucosa of cats and dogs, whilst cells resembling H. The authors concluded that, although GC incidence is not high in Africa, H.