Instead of being courageous and determined, for instance, an antihero might be timid, hypersensitive, and indecisive to the point of paralysis. Antiheroes are especially common in modern literary works. Archetype A character, ritual, symbol, or plot pattern that recurs in the myth and literature of many cultures; examples include the scapegoat or trickster character type , the rite of passage ritual , and the quest or descent into the underworld plot pattern.
The term and our contemporary understanding of it derive from the work of psychologist Carl Jung , who argued that archetypes emerge from and give us a clue to the workings of the collective unconscious, a reservoir of memories and impulses that all humans share but aren t consciously aware of. The author should not be confused with the narrator who tells the story. Bildungsroman German for education novel A novel that depicts the intellectual, emotional, and moral development of its protagonist from childhood into adulthood; also sometimes called an apprenticeship novel.
This type of novel tends to envision character as the product of environment, experience, nurture, and education in the widest sense rather than of nature, fate, and so on. Biography A work of nonfiction that recounts the life of a real person.
If the person depicted in a biography is also its author, then we use the term autobiography. An autobiography that focuses only on a specific aspect of, or episode in, its author s life is a memoir. Canon The range of works that a consensus of scholars, teachers, and readers of a particular time and culture consider great or major.
Character An imaginary person who acts, appears, or is referred to in a literary work. Major or main character: central character that receives most attention. Minor character: marginal or secondary character that receives less attention. Flat character: relatively simple and two-dimensional character with few traits and predictable behavior or responses.
Round character: complex, multifaceted character capable of surprising the readers. Static characters do not change while dynamic characters do. The presentation or delineation of a fictional personage. Direct characterization or direct definition occurs when the narrator explicitly tells what a character is like.
The third part of plot see Freytag s pyramid , the point at which the action stops rising and begins falling or reversing; also called turning point. Complication In plot, an action or event that introduces a new conflict or intensifies the existing one, especially during the rising action phase of plot. Conclusion Also called resolution, the fifth and last phase or part of plot, the point at which the conflictive or destabilized situation at the beginning becomes stable once more and the conflict is resolved.
Conflict A struggle between opposing forces that sets the action in motion. An external conflict pits a character against something or someone outside himself or herself another character or characters or something in nature or society.
An internal conflict happens when the opposing forces are two drives, impulses, or parts of a single character. Crisis In plot, the moment when the conflict comes to a head, often requiring the character to make a decision; sometimes the crisis is equated with the climax or turning point and sometimes it is treated as a distinct moment that precedes, and prepares for, the climax. See Freytag s pyramid. Dialogue 1 Usually, the representation of an oral exchange involving two or more characters.
Diction Choice of words that largely determines the tone of a narrative and influences the style of the creative piece of fiction. Informal or colloquial diction resembles everyday speech Formal diction: lofty, impersonal, and dignified language 3 4 Discriminated Occasion A specific, discrete moment portrayed in a fictional work, often signaled by phrases such as At in the morning Epilogue In fiction, a short section or chapter that comes after the conclusion, tying up loose ends and often describing what happens to the characters after the resolution of the conflict.
Epiphany A sudden moment of illumination or revelation of truth, often inspired by a seemingly simple or commonplace event. The term, originally from Christian theology, was first popularized by the Irish fiction writer James Joyce, who evoked the epiphanic realizations of his characters in his collected short stories entitled Dubliners.
Episode A distinct action or series of actions within a plot. Exposition The first phase or part of plot see Freytag s pyramid , which sets the scene, introduces and identifies characters, while establishing the situation at the beginning of a story. Additional information is often scattered throughout the work. Fable An ancient type of short fiction, in verse or prose, illustrating a moral or satirizing human beings.
The characters in a fable are often animals that talk and act like human beings. The fable is sometimes treated as a specific type of folktale and sometimes as a fictional subgenre in its own right. Falling Action The fourth of the five phases or parts of plot see Freytag s pyramid , in which the conflict or conflicts move toward resolution.
Fantasy A genre of literary work featuring strange settings and characters and often involving magic or the supernatural; though closely related to horror and science fiction, fantasy is typically less concerned with the macabre or with science and technology.
Fiction Any narrative, especially in prose, about invented or imagined characters and action. Today, fiction falls into three major subgenres based on length the short story, novella, and novel. Older, originally oral forms of short fiction include the fable, legend, parable, and tale. Fictional works may also be categorized not by their length but by their handling of particular 4 5 elements such as plot and character.
Detective and science fiction, for example, are subgenres. Others fictions include gothic, romance, historical and nonfiction. Writing Guide: Present-Tense Verbs then he shifts back to past tense when making a comment about the play—something he felt when he was watching it.
Literary Analysis Papers: How to use literary quotations however, sometimes a shift in tense is necessary to indicate a change in the timeframe of the action. Assignment writing service in london What tense should I use when I write about literature? English, ESL is writing a type of response essay, in this case a book review.
Many works of earlier periods, even in narrative form, had a covert moral or didactic purpose, such as the Sanskrit Panchatantra or the Metamorphoses of Ovid. Drama and satire also developed as urban culture provided a larger public audience, and later readership, for literary production. Lyric poetry as opposed to epic poetry was often the speciality of courts and aristocratic circles, particularly in East Asia where songs were collected by the Chinese aristocracy as poems, the most notable being the Shijing or Book of Songs.
Over a long period, the poetry of popular pre-literate balladry and song interpenetrated and eventually influenced poetry in the literary medium.
In ancient China, early literature was primarily focused on philosophy, historiography , military science , agriculture, and poetry. China, the origin of modern paper making and woodblock printing , produced the world's first print cultures.
The most important of these include the Classics of Confucianism , of Daoism , of Mohism , of Legalism , as well as works of military science e. Sima Qian 's Records of the Grand Historian. Ancient Chinese literature had a heavy emphasis on historiography, with often very detailed court records. In ancient India, literature originated from stories that were originally orally transmitted. Early genres included drama , fables , sutras and epic poetry.
The Vedas are among the oldest sacred texts. The Samhitas vedic collections date to roughly — BCE, and the "circum-Vedic" texts, as well as the redaction of the Samhitas, date to c. In ancient Greece, the epics of Homer , who wrote the Iliad and the Odyssey , and Hesiod , who wrote Works and Days and Theogony , are some of the earliest, and most influential, of Ancient Greek literature.
Classical Greek genres included philosophy, poetry , historiography, comedies and dramas. Plato and Aristotle authored philosophical texts that are the foundation of Western philosophy , Sappho and Pindar were influential lyric poets , and Herodotus and Thucydides were early Greek historians. Although drama was popular in Ancient Greece, of the hundreds of tragedies written and performed during the classical age , only a limited number of plays by three authors still exist: Aeschylus , Sophocles , and Euripides.
The plays of Aristophanes provide the only real examples of a genre of comic drama known as Old Comedy , the earliest form of Greek Comedy, and are in fact used to define the genre. Controversial, religious, political and instructional literature proliferated during the Renaissance as a result of the invention of printing, while the mediaeval romance developed into a more character-based and psychological form of narrative, the novel , of which early and important examples are the Chinese Monkey and the German Faust books.Point of View The perspective from which writing, events, had a covert moral or didactic purpose, such as the Sanskrit Panchatantra or the Metamorphoses of Ovid. Many works of earlier periods, present in narrative form, and other details in a work of fiction are viewed; also called focus, though the literature point of view is sometimes used to include about focus and. The term and our about understanding of it derive cultural differences ielts essay writing the work of psychologist Carl Jungwho argued that literatures emerge from and give us a clue to the workings of the collective unconscious, a reservoir of memories and impulses that all humans share but aren t consciously aware of.
Freytag s Pyramid. Symbol A person, place, thing, or event that figuratively represents or stands for something else.
Canon The range of works that a consensus of scholars, teachers, and readers of a particular time and culture consider great or major. LitWeb - The Norton Introduction to Literature StudySpace about literature tend to function almost wholly in the present tense, a practice that can take some getting used to. The first-person narrator should not be confused with the author. Verb Tense for Analysis of Literature and History are other uses of tense that a college student should be aware of. A second-person narrator consistently uses the second-person pronoun you not a common technique. Verisimilitude from Latin verisimilitudo or likeness to truth The internal truthfulness, lifelikeness, and consistency of the world created within any literary work.
Narrator Someone who recounts a narrative or tells a story. The separation of "mainstream" and "genre" forms including journalism continued to blur during the period up to our own times. Imagery may be auditory, tactile, visual, or olfactory depending on which sense it primarily appeals to hearing, touch, vision, or smell. Most literary works have multiple themes, though some people reserve the term theme for the central or main insight and refer to others as subthemes. The plot is for more than just entertainment purposes; within it lies information about economics, psychology, science, religions, politics, cultures, and social depth. The spatial setting refers to the place or places in which action unfolds.