This award is given to the top grade student with a shortened history of success in statistics. My interminable training in psychology draws me toward a more quantitative experimental experience. While attending the University of Europe, I would like to study international initiatives or comparative politics while in good school.
Transport under two-phase flow conditions can be highly influenced by fluids topology that creates connected pathways as well as dead-end regions.
The total salinity of LS1 is the same as 3. As a result, driven by the aqueous pressure of the bulk liquid, the nanofluid will spread along the solid surface thus decreasing the contact angle which enhances the water wetness of the surface. Mathematical modeling of colloidal particles transport in the medium treated by nanofluids: deep bed filtration approach. The low salinity brines were different dilution factors of seawater, LS1, and LS2. Similarly, LS showed higher imbibition in Group C highest permeability compared to Group A samples lowest permeability. An experimental study on a 2D micro model have shown that high salinity waterflooding displaces oil from larger pores which allows the smaller pores to be more accessible for wettability modification or osmosis gradients salt gradient
However, we cannot conclude that this section is less oil- wet as the USS tests done on 2 plugs from this section are showing oil-wet relative permeability curves. References Al-Attar, H. SW injected after 3. Authors and Affiliations.
Low salinity water flooding: proof of wettability alteration on a field wide scale. Following LS1 injection, 25x dil. Finally, preliminary screening and implementation guidelines for LSW operation are presented for both laboratory investigation and field-scale applications. Hence, it would be favorable to inject low salinity water from the beginning of waterflooding to avoid stagnant saturation. Favourable oil recovery under tertiary mode of low salinity waterflooding has been recorded when oil banking has been observed 12 ,
The rock was characterized using different measurements and techniques such as porosity, permeability, semi-quantitative X-ray diffraction XRD , scanning electron microscopy SEM , and mercury intrusion capillary pressure MICP. Zaretskiy, Y. The wettability state of a reservoir is a result of a complex interaction between crude oil, brine and rock COBR 3 , 7 , 10 , 14 , therefore, many mechanisms have been proposed to explain this phenomenon 5 , 8. Nanoparticles for formation fines fixation and improving performance of surfactant structure fluids. Some experimental studies show that there is a shift in relative permeability and capillary pressure continuum scale parameters as a result of wettability alteration sub-pore scale process under low salinity waterflooding 22 —
The wettability state of a reservoir is a result of a complex interaction between crude oil, brine and rock COBR 3 , 7 , 10 , 14 , therefore, many mechanisms have been proposed to explain this phenomenon 5 , 8. Nasralla, R.
Comparing the two tests showed that injection of LS resulted in higher oil production compared to HS at low rates, as depicted in Figure 10, even though the pressure drop by LS was lower. Al-Harrasi, A.
SW and LS1 do not have a higher potential than 3. Robust Optimization for LSW was introduced based on multiple geological realizations, which overcomes the current weakness of optimization based on single geological realization. In addition, the lower density of LS could lead to better vertical sweep efficiency than FW. However, the optimum dilution factor could not be determined as not all the tests were consistent, i. Nanofluids: science and technology.
SW but the composition is somewhat different. Having a poor displacement affects the test interpretation the extracted relative permeability. Robust Optimization is demonstrated to be an excellent approach for reducing the effect of geological uncertainty in LSW projects. Mathematical modeling of colloidal particles transport in the medium treated by nanofluids: deep bed filtration approach.