It is an activity increasing the quality and efficiency of converting operations. The basic essence of supply chain is: converting inputs into desired outputs in an efficient and cost effective manner. However, there is a constant pressure on managers to improve the efficiency of their supply chains. As the need for increasing effectiveness of supply chains rose in terms of quality, safety, low cost and flexibility , the new initiatives and methods were developed to increase the effectiveness of supply chain.
However, these new models and frameworks not only increased the efficiency of operations; but also gave rise to an array of unforeseen problems and risks in the supply chain.
In a complex dynamic business environment, supply chains have become the most integral part of the organization. However, the quest of organizations and globalization with aim of constructing an effective means of supply and supply chain has increased the complexity of the supply chain which can often reduce the knowledge and understanding the of the exposure to risk The Chartered Quality Institute, Globalization in terms refers to expansion of the business operations; when the business expands its density of operations or globalizes to different geographical locations, the supply chains of the organization has an considerable influence and risks evolving out of the expansion strategies.
This questions the flexibility of the adopted supply chain methodologies. In terms of business, a risk could be anything arriving from a particular operation before or after or the occurrences that has a likelihood of impact on the organization or the supply chain process or in the converting process.
In the present macro-micro environment, supply chains are vulnerable disruptions with unforeseen large consequences of seeming events Craighead et al.
Background Value The risks can arrive from anywhere or from any source. The implementation of supply chain management dates back to history, years ago. During the reign of Vikings, a trade was developed between the North and Baltic with an interesting supply chain during 10th century.
However, this particular chain was disrupted by robbers and Viking who use to steal the products and threaten the lives of individuals. With view of protecting and safeguarding the traders, merchandisers and workers; the Haneseatic League was formed, which applauded by many authors and researchers as an early form of supply chain risk management. However, the risks in the pre-civilization periods were limited; but in the present dynamic environment, there are numerous of risks arising from unanticipated sources.
This argues the obligatory requirement of supply chain risk management with a wider scope assessing majority of risks. The research paper presented by the supply chain council has spilled the supportive light in assessing risks and managing them within the supply chains with the help of practical models. The incorporation of SCRM into to the process reference models has offered a conceptualized framework for assessing and managing risks in the supply chains.
This particular framework has been widely practiced in irrespective of industry sectors around the globe. An exploratory study by Lockamy and McCormack presented empirical evidences about how the supply chain operations model improves the supply chain performance within the organization.
As business operates in a complex and dynamic environment, the frameworks must be recycled or updates to match the ongoing trends and changes. The author argued that vulnerability should also be one of the relevant attribute of SCOR with the help empirical evidences as supportive argument.
This research paper discusses the importance of supply chain risk management and its principles in the light of theoretical and practical literature. For the purpose of concrete analysis, a specific business case will be built of a particular industry and risk management framework shall be assessed by incorporating SCOR and VaR model.
The approach adopted in this particular research is exploratory study that aims at explaining all the problems related with area of the study Why, What and How 1. Research Problem The research problem is a general statement most often short and precise that defines the concern areas of the investigation, nature of appropriate forms in the investigation involved meriting the research.
The research problem ideally consists of three parts which are referred as idea, the reality and the consequences of the investigation which are presented to the readers. Why Problems - Why Supply chain risk management is important for organizations? How Problems - How organization can assess and evaluate risks within the supply chains? Research Contributions Many scholars and authors have done certain number of research studies focused on the integration of SCOR model into their supply chains to match business processes.
Manju and Mebtzer a , presented the journal paper that defined risks from global context and offered a conceptual supply chain risks management framework that involves five stages in assessing and managing risks within the supply chains. Their model of risk management are widely practiced by many firms and business organizations. Few studies focused on the review and development SCOR models to ensure business continuity. An explanatory study by Adetunji aimed at developing new frameworks of attributes that are too integrated into the existing SCOR model for effective supply risk management.
This particular research paper focuses on studying the SCOR models and their application in supply chain risk management. A case of Toyota Kirloskar Company is used as a methodology to offer suggestions for the continual development SCOR model and to attain the intended research objectives. Company Background The term Toyota is familiarized in major nations across the globe; as a car manufacturing company, which is because of their brand and the given importance to quality and service.
Toyota Motor Corporation is a Japan based manufacturing firm which is mainly engaged in the automobile business and even has identified business in financial services domain. The history of Toyota dates back to , when it was established as a division within the Toyoda Automatic Loom Works, Ltd. The manufacturing of poor quality vehicles with primitive technology was not so much incumbent in the automobile market. However, the firm had little success at early stages of production Liker, The developments grew immensely by the support of the key players like Eiji Toyoda, Taaichi Ohno and the founder Kicchiro Toyoda and the stakeholders of the company.
S automobile market. These supermarkets, instead of having lot of inventory held in the stores, the customer was signaling what should be bought from the wholesalers and when it should be bought. The signal was simply to let know how much should be bought and how should be replenished.
The same concept was conceptualized and implemented within the TPS which gave rise to the Kanban System. A Kanban is simply signal sent by some device to the next upstream supply source that more of whatever supplies are needed Liker ; Jr.
During the replenishment process, another container in the system allows the operation to continue further. Production sites of Toyota outside Japan Figure has been removed for publication. The internal risks exposed in TKM facility is assessed and evaluated in the analysis chapter of this study. Literature Review The literature review chapter explains the main theory and frameworks developed and presented by academic authors, researchers and business practitioners.
Supply Chain Management Operations management is the process of planning, scheduling and controlling of the activities that transform inputs into finished goods and services. An operations management is a collection of process, which further includes sub-processes. Supply chains are a series of value creating processes spanning over company boundaries in order to provide value to the end consumer Chinkan, Supply chain management is an oldest existing concept of management, which has been researched long down the history Mentzer et al, ; Lamming et al.
In simpler words, a supply chain is an integrated manufacturing process where, raw materials are converted into final products, and then delivered to customers. The Supply Chain Process Mentzer et al.
Mentzer et al. Supply chain management also becomes a tool in the process of accomplishing corporate strategic objectives: a reduced working capital, b taking assets off the balance sheet, c accelerating cash-to-cash cycles and d increasing inventory turns, and so on. To become more successful, an effective and efficient supply chain management should have certain principles so that the adhered objectives are accomplished effectively. Segment customers based on service needs: Firms have grouped their customers by industry product or distribution channel and makes attempt to provide the same service level to each customers.
Customizing the supply chain network: The designed supply chain network must more feasible. Firms must intensely focus on the services requirements and profitability of the segmented customer groups; creating a monolithic supply chain management network.
The operation and product department should be capable of forecasting early market signals to embrace the competition in the market; which leads to more consistent forecast and optimal resource allocation. Differentiate product closer to the customer: The manufacturing process should be closer to the customer, which means the product manufactured should meet the actual needs of the customer.
To satisfy the product demand, at times differentiation should at the lesser proportions, so that the needs of the customer are not distorted.
Strategically manage the sources of supply: Firms should work closely with their suppliers, so that the cost of owning materials and services can be reduced.
This can also boost the margins for supply chain leaders and for the suppliers. Develop a supply chain wide technology strategy: Information is highly important in the supply chain; it can be technical and non-technical. Nevertheless, gaining a technical advantage in supply is more like to be a competitive advantage. Information technology must support multiple decision making process and should provide a clear view of flow of products, services and information.
Adapt channel-spanning performance measures: Effective supply chain managements not only monitor internal functions, but also adopts different approaches to think every chain in the system strategically embracing both financial and service metrics in the organization.
The contradiction is that adopting the above principles in the organization is not as simple as stated. There might or will arise a significant amount of risks before or during the implementation process. These principles might counter to ingrained functionality oriented thinking and it is all about how companies organize, operate and serve customers.
Supply Chain Risk Today, firms and corporations are restructuring themselves due to changing customer demands and competitive pressure in the market. Such a restructuring would enable firms to operate on a global basis to take advantage of international product, factor and capital markets. Firms have been aware of the need of the contingency planning and risk management. Whilst, before descripting supply chain risk management; there is a conceptual need of understanding what risk is are from a varied perspective.
As outlined by Dr. McComack, Wilkerson et al. According to International Organization for Standardization ISO, the concept risk deals with two components, Losses along with related amounts and uncertainty of their occurrence. Supply chains are attractive because they allow for customization and are cost effective sources for an organization. The advent of globalization has created further opportunities for many organizations, retailers and manufacturers; but along with increased risks or unexpected consequences in the supply chains which would likely to wreck the system when not addressed in time.
Firms have to expand their capabilities beyond their traditional boundaries to rely on extended networks in order to capture new markets; which has resulted in much more intensive competition between the teams rather than individual corporations. According to Navigant, p3 , the supply issues or risks should be addressed immediately to avoid further damage to supply chain processes. Rapid responding or mitigation strategies used at the early level when the event started , is likely to evaluate such risks at initial.
If unattended or responded lately, would result in worst damage to the organizations which would impact the management processes and practices. They might have risks internally and externally, but risks involved in their supply chain management would result in problems that are more complex for the corporations.
Firms supply chains require highly coordinated flow of goods, services, information and financial inputs within the process Mentzer Supply chain risk management is an iterative process that ensures the profitability and continuity of business by identifying and eliminating risks in the supply chains.
It entails decisions and actions to reduce the exposure of risks, mitigate the consequences of risks and to counter balance the impacts. From a strategic point of view, supply chain management can be viewed as the process of managing risks in the supply chain.
This is the common understanding of supply chain risks; managing such risks can be referred as Supply Chain Risk Management.
The below table. These crimes are directed to the computers and available digital gadget, the network and the various systems on which data is stored.
Companies who were victims of theft or robbery will use verbal communication to convince customers to win their trust back. Relatively in modern time e- commerce firms use the internet to facilitate this communication even before they are attacked, they will usually assure customers of their safety and convenience as far as their websites are concerned.
Appendix 2 catalogues common types of cyber crime Swartz, The harm engineered by cyber crime has varying effects over the passage of time. A typical example is about computer viruses which use to be seen as very dangerous and damaging to the any computer system that gets infected in recent years it is not that dangerous as it use to Be because counter stronger anti-viruses have come up to reduce the effects of damage they can cause to a system Sommer, Also there were legislations across the globe against computer viruses proponent, it was seen as a criminal offence tantamount to prosecution, and this also assisted in reducing viral infections to systems.
The sharing of information between local agencies, Federal states exposes possible virus attack a typical example is the collaboration that exist between the Federal Bureau of investigation and the secret service in USA to fights against cyber crime ProQuest. Online access is provided by Pro-Quest Research Library for a large number of academic subjects. The Pro-Quest databases are made up of 4, tiles and above, almost 2, in full text, as of until Pro-Quest The cases evaluated in this study were listed at the top of the search, they concerned companies that traded publicly, and also comprised news stories in details.
As at February , Amazon. The companies had to shut down due to the brutality of the attack and to have enough time to repair the damages caused and to impede unauthorised access.
Security features were strengthened to safeguard the systems against future attacks Kranhold, The Western Union branch in Data Corp was also attacked by some individual hackers, as at September During this cyber attack on the companies site credit-card details for clientele were stolen, the theft took place because a n employee was negligent with the files and made them open to attack and it was at a time where a r o u t i n e maintenance was been done.
A perpetrator hacked into Choice Point Inc. The intruder did hack the system this time e- crime procedures; however, the perpetrator faked his identity about some few forms and over the phone. The whole information was simply handed over to the intruder as a result. This was a routine activity carried out by Choice Point Inc to legitimate businesses, for a price. In this case, the perpetrator gave false information about him and was given access to the files; the respective company has taken measures to prevent this problem from recurring because of the incident Perez and Brooks, In November The Federal Trade Commission undertook a survey in which its workers posed as troubled customers of various banks so as to measure the banks' capacity to act in response and avert electronic-theft.
The Citizens Financial Group and Hibernia Corporation were graded as the last five banks as far as prevention and thwarting e-crime Saranow, A complicated hacking method was not used the criminal however engaged traditional bribery to recruit former employees of the company.
The information was subsequently sold to law firms criminal and collection agencies by these criminals; the incident was reported to the New Jersey police for investigation Yuan, Card- systems Inc. An organisation that processed credit card operations for small Scale and mid- sized businesses had their database hacked in June, and credit card details were acquired again as a result.
Due to the security breach, a lot of banks were affected negatively. A private investigation company, thus Morgan Chase were made to inspect the security of its customers at the time of the incident Sidel and Pacelle Washington Mutual Inc. Was made to close down over 1, debit-card accounts Sidel and Pacelle, Cyber-crime includes cyber-terrorism, electronic-theft, espionage, internet credit card fraud, and phishing.
Damages survived were closure of websites to stolen classified information Owen, Defensive measures can be engaged to ensure the prevention of cybercrime. Nonetheless, irrespective of how many preventive measures are in place, except accurately and constantly programmed, the system may either negligibly report cyber crimes or excessively as a result giving false alarm, by a single interruption detection Digital evidence, Interruption discovery methods include detection of anomaly in the system, tripwires, and configuration checking tools.
Prevention techniques are imperfect, as such, e-commerce firms should establish measures for analysis of and revitalization the system after cybercrime attack occurs Wilding, Qualified experts can aid in resolving cybercrimes. Most e-business firms usually require competent computer security persons; thus, hiring outside experts, for example, forensic accountants, computer forensic professional. Though many law enforcement bodies do not have the requisite expertise to investigate some issues of cybercrime, however they can help to some extent; say by seizing computers that were used to perpetrate crime for further investigation Kerr et al.
Digital forensics s is concerned about an investigation into anything that has technology connotation, just like forensic science, it subject systems and technology to observation and investigate the technology against anything that may be of the interest of the investigator. Technology has advanced and computer programmers have applications that can track criminal irrespective of their location this they do by making use of the GPS.
If digital forensic is introduced into e-commerce, it will reduce if not totally eradicate cyber crime. There are basically five threats to E- commerce security: a natural catastrophes, b corrupt workforces, c unhappy workforces, d and inadvertent blunders and oversights.
Human errors constitute the major cause of the breaches that occur in computer security, inadvertent oversights and mistakes are very common in the implementation and operation process of a system Stephenson, b. However if a system is well developed these continues errors will be reduced there should be an effective internal control measures. The individuals in any given organisation are the key to computer and information security. According to surveys carried out showed that systems development is very effective when users are part of the process, the system will not likely to fail.
The following steps by organisations are essential to effective computer security. Security policies and controls should be enforced and communicated constantly Stephenson, c a Controls and security techniques should be put in place to ensure access to users and traceable information system should be implemented b Users should be restricted to their area of jurisdiction only and not to other part of the system.
In addition, the study looks at possible way to ensure user convenience and the securing their confidential details Tong, Authentication, authorization, and encryption are some basic security methodologies. Though several companies offer s e c u r i t y software, as technology advances, so will the ingenuity of the hackers and vigilance is therefore warranted on a continuing b a s i s Traynor, The policy and privacy issue that governs e-commerce should be made available to prospective customers in various ways.
It is imperative that e- commerce firms do not play on the ignorance consumers given products. The law should be reconsidered to accept the scientific and procedural discoveries of Digital Forensics in its attempt to detect and expose perpetrators of cyber crime. Observation of ethics in the practise to unravel criminal activities over the internet is as equally important as catching the criminals.
According to Moore the court will usually accept digital forensic evidence in a typical cyber fraud case if the investigation and analysis was done within a generally accepted scientific parameters and ethical considerations not compromised CHAPTER 3.
In research methodology, various steps are adopted generally by the researcher and logically studying a given research problems Esterberg, Research methodology gives reasons and relevance to the use of research methods or techniques such as developing test or indices, the calculation of mode, mean, median and standard deviation, ANOVAs, correlation and regression or chi-square, its concept also help in how the researcher can appropriately us any of the above research techniques.
For the purposes of this paper a descriptive statistics with mean frequency indices will be used to test the variables that are central to the topics investigated. Thus how e- commerce has been beneficial to users in terms of convenience and relatively how damaging it is with regards to its security challenges or flaws Jackson, The author postulate that research methods is just one aspect of research methodology, Thus this concept is not only about research method, but also considers the reason for the method used within the framework of the study, The use of a particular method is not only to satisfy the researcher but also to all those concern.
The reason for research study undertaken, research problems, how they have been identifies, the ways and reasons of hypothesis formulation, the methods adopted for the collection of data and its analysis and a host of similar issues are undertaken in research methodology as far as the research problems are concerned. The approach to research philosophy is encompassed by various terminologies such as epistemology thus what is known to be the truth and doxology that which is supposed to true Berg, The essence of research is to find answers the way a researcher observes is usually influenced by the basic assumptions that under pins the given research philosophy.
The assumed position will always determine the research design and methods. There are basically two research philosophy used in modern research and they include Positivist which is also called scientific and interpretivist also known to be anti-positivist Cozby, This method is of the view that the researcher needs to focus on the reality of the facts available for the research, thus make use of the basic concepts available. Social realities of observable fact form the basis of positivism. A typical example of positivist approach that was used for this work is the realism philosophy.
Interpretive is expected to take an empathetic position thus putting one into an environment to understand how things are done to be able to come out with a critical result Berg, Thus a realist philosophy under positivism was ideal Alcock, This supposes that the design of research is the framework for the collection of information and subsequently analysing. The design unfolds type oh been undertaken thus descriptive or exploratory type of research approach and it also helps mine the expectation of the researcher Greene, et al A good measurement techniques is very imperative for this type of research since the judgement of the researcher will determine the authenticity of the result 3.
This approach has other sections such as inferential, experimental and simulation approach Cozby, The essence of the inferential approach is to constitute a database out of which inferences can be made on the characteristics of a given population. This usually implies a survey research where a sample population is considered either by questioning or observing to establish its features and it is then inferred that the population has the exact features Dillman, et al.
A general background of a given research problem is studied and analysed before undertaken. This is to choose the right tools to use in analysing the findings. This type of research strategies was used in the data analysis of this paper and the SPSS was used alongside Excel to computer the data and test hypotheses.
Diagrams were generated with Excel Qualitative approach is subject to the interpretation of secondary data where a researcher only observes and makes deductions from exiting findings without any statistical application.
The qualitative approach concerns itself with the subjective analysis of views, attitudes and behaviour of existing findings. Research in this approach is basically dependent on the impressions and insights of the researcher. Non-quantitative or rigorous quantitative forms are generated as a result of this approach.
Interviews, focus group discussions and observations are some of the techniques used in carrying out this aspect of research design Dillman, However for the purposes of this paper which seek to investigate E-commerce and its corresponding security issues and considering user convenience, Quantitative approach of research design was employed.
Research method play various roles such as determining the reasoning pattern of the researcher, how to interpret and communicate research findings to the understanding of the layman also it determinants regulations for standardised evaluation of findings of a research activity Beins, The underlining factor about research methods is to have a theory or hypothesis to develop research objectives Bem, It is primary data because the researcher gets first hand information from respondents and tries to evaluate the response.
There are no inferences from other source of data though there could be such information already existing on a given research problem. There are various types of primary data collection these include, observation, interviews and questionnaires Berg, This method of data collection was used in gathering data for this study. The researcher consults the respondent independently to collect data Cozby, Where predetermined questioned are printed out and given to respondent randomly to answer.
The results is then analysed and interpret to meet the objectives of the research. This Type of primary data collection was used for this paper Bowman and Anthonysamy, Sampling methods always go through a procedure of identifying the population out of which a sample can be selected for the solution of a given research problem Grissom, There are two types of sampling, thus probability sampling and non - probability sampling.
Probability sampling; this is where each sample size in a given populace have the equal chance to participate in a research. The research there for indecently select without iota of bias. A probability sampling was used for this work where the total population size was people who have transacted any form of business online before, out of which 60 were used as sample size to represent respondents. These were given the questions to respond to.
Any of these people could have the questions Heerwegh, Furthermore, non probability sampling method: this is where element in a given populace do not have equal chances of participating in a research. This is usually used in relative research approach. Questionnaires were administered to respondent for data to be collected for the purposes of this paper. This method of collecting data is very common, especially in big research work. Questionnaires form data collection is a method that is being used by individual research workers, public and private agencies and the government.
In this method questionnaires were printed out and given to people concern with a request to answer the questions and return them. A questionnaire is made up of a number of questions arranged in an orderly form; questions were about the topic under review. The respondents were not influenced to answer the question to suit the interest of the researcher, however on their own will, so every outcome of the findings is the true results of the respondents concerns.
All 60 questionnaires administered were however retrieved. The topic under decision is very broad which could have been expanded in various ways and a respondent of 6o is not enough to represent the total statistical outcome; however it is feasible for the purposes of this work.
The data was analysed with emphasis on ensuing outcome in percentages Hyde, Each question in the questionnaire was adequately discussed. Mean descriptive statistic was used to test the hypothesis 3. Ethical norms are supposed to be practiced and upheld by any researcher in any given discipline. Ethics in research is now been taught in most academic institution, this is to ensure that value is placed on the findings of people.
This research took into consideration the entire necessary ethical phenomenon. The respondents were told that confidentiality and secrecy of their information will be highly guarded and this study as far as the researcher is concerned did not and will not cause and harms to any person whatsoever Ideland, I have tried to strictly abide by ethical rules and regulation in this dissertation.
Age distribution of respondents illustration not visible in this excerpt The table above shows the age distribution of respondents with years as the highest with Table 4. Gender distribution of respondents illustration not visible in this excerpt The table above also displays the gender distribution of respondent thus male and female; with male respondents being the highest saw Educational background of respondents illustration not visible in this excerpt Table 4.
Respondent were asked to respond with reference to their level of confidence in any of them or both. Most respondent gave remarks to the reason of their choice and it was because EBay deals more with individual items and payment is done through a third party and the fear of who to hold responsible in case of unforeseen contingencies was a major concern to respondents.
This suggest that, online shoppers are prone to cyber crime every moment this is also because e-commerce is an industry that is growing rigorously and so it implies cyber criminals have developed the skills of causing security threat to online shopper and the organisation as a whole.
This aspect of scam is called Phishing, thus some individual hackers develops sites that looks just like the original and this they used to steal from shoppers, Though Implies that cyber crime exist and really going on at the detriment of uninformed customers Table 4. There are various schools of thought on this which is carried out in chapter 5. As per the questions administered the respondents were asked to write the response in their own words, this outcome is however a paraphrase and summary of what they said.
Some of these decisions were based on the experiences they have had concerning online transactions Though there are a lot of e-commerce firms these ones were chosen for the purpose of this research. However the unnamed e-commerce sites are denoted as others and this was represented with 6.
This is related to the working class in the actives ages. The outcome shows the level of correlation between the frequency of online transactions and fraud related experiences, thus the more one goes online to do business the higher the risk of experience a criminal activity. Statistical elucidation is carried out in chapter 5. E-commerce as an emerging trading industry cannot to be over emphasised, it has gone through series of changes over the years.
Most Companies that are successful now can attribute it to online trading, it is faster, cheaper and easier to trade online, and companies are able to reach millions of clients across the globe without any physical contact.
This is a massive development in business transactions. Just as any business has challenges related to security such as theft and embezzlement of funds, e- commerce as a business also has its security problems, this has become rampant in modern time due to the fast growing nature of technology. In the advent of these security issues, computer forensics and its related its related mechanism which are also designed to ensure surety, investigate and arrest criminals associated with online activities such as e-commerce needs to be employed greatly to enhance the security that e-commerce is fighting for.
Crime is on the ascendancy, because perpetrators now can hide under anonymity the internet and its related technology provides, thus one can sit any where commit a crime and would not be noticed. It is for this concern that a competent computer tools should be employed to stop these occurrences Wilding, , Zombori, Digital forensics should be promoted and resourced with all needed equipment since this aspect of IT has what it takes to overcome the problem of anonymity so that anywhere cyber crime is committed perpetrators can be brought to book The entire network security requires.
From the research findings respondents were asked if they had experienced any form of fraud whiles transacting business online and out of the total respondents of 60 people, 47 which represents The implication of this implies that the kind of fraudulent experiences respondent might have had may include phishing, identity, theft, stolen credit card details among other.
These and more other online criminal activities prevail in the e-commerce industries and they are the reason the security concerns as far as online transactions are concerned A descriptive mean statistics used to test Hypothesis, the Null hypotheses is of the view that the more one visits the internet to transact business the higher the risk, this was ascertained as respondents were asked to respond to how often they visit Amazon or EBay and any other e- commerce site the results are state above.
The mean value for how often respondents use e-commerce sites was 2. One of the areas that I would recommend with the issues of overcoming cyber threat is that Security policy and procedure should be entrench in every country and a global policy collaboration by developed countries would really be a good step in the right direction.
Though research shows there are policies on these security problems, they are not treated as important as Atomic bomb terrorist. Security policies should cut across the firm, the user and both developing and developed countries.
Users also may need education on how to protect their security pin to their debit or credit card and not give their passwords of their individual subscription to theses e-commerce sites to other people, if other persons rather than legitimate owners log onto an account it become difficult to determine who is facilitating a security breach Silberschatz K. This port security defines access and what the internet resources are used for.
With this a firm can know who enters their system, thus external users such as suppliers, buyers and various stakeholders to a respective company Pemble, This implies that the user only does what the system permits and cannot go beyond those boundaries such as breaking into the server of the firm.
This research on investigating e-commerce security have been carried out in various forms by different authors, this paper is also a contributions but there are more to explore especially in deploying digital forensics in E-governance and national issues not only on e-commerce and trade related.
Conception of a framework for the combination of heterogeneous methods for reclassifying product data in the e-business domain. Proceedings of the 26 McMaster World Congress. Hamilton, Canada.
Back from the future: Parapsychology and the Bem affair. Social and behaviour researchers experinces with their IRBs. Ethics and Behaviour,17, Natural History, , Accounting Forum, 32, Computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software: a review.
Canadian journal of cardiovascular nursing 19, Methodological and conceptual issues in cross-cultural research. Keith Ed. Research Methods and statistics.
Feeling the Future: Experimental evidence for anomalous retroactive influences on cognition and affect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, , BERG, B. Qualitative research Bosten. CHEN, A. B2B e-marketplace announcements and shareholder wealth. Economic and Financial Review. Planning and deployment of collaborative commerce: A conceptual framework and empirical evidences. Clarkson, P. Western Union reassures clients No financial fraud found since hacking.
Mail and internet surveys.These principles might counter to ingrained functionality oriented thinking attacked by some individual hackers, as at September Analysis. The Western Union branch in Data Corp was also and it is all about how companies organize, operate and serve customers.
In reality the first aircraft was delivered in Elsevier Information Security Technical Report.
The internal risks exposed in TKM facility is assessed and evaluated in the analysis chapter of this study. Systems S e c u r i t y threats h a v e progressively increased from b o t h o u t s i d e a n d inside corporate boundaries. Supply Chain Risk Management Supply chain risk management confines the process of identifying risks, assessing them and choosing them from range of approaches to mitigate them Nieger, Rotaru, and Churilov ; Manuj and Metzer a, b; Khan and Burnes ; Gaonkar and Viswanadhan ; Juttner, Peck and Christopher Economic and Financial Review.
Ceph aims dissertation on internet; prices; write an initiative to students or dissertation. Even well through our unofficial wurm unlimited forums. Firms are responsible to manage their suppliers, financials, worker safety precautions, production and structural capacities. Firms must intensely focus on the services requirements and profitability of the segmented customer groups; creating a monolithic supply chain management network. Age distribution of respondents illustration not visible in this excerpt The table above shows the age distribution of respondents with years as the highest with
Cybercrimes Of The 21st Century.
One of the areas that I would recommend with the issues of overcoming cyber threat is that Security policy and procedure should be entrench in every country and a global policy collaboration by developed countries would really be a good step in the right direction. The implication of this implies that the kind of fraudulent experiences respondent might have had may include phishing, identity, theft, stolen credit card details among other. Damages survived were closure of websites to stolen classified information Owen,
This suggest that, online shoppers are prone to cyber crime every moment this is also because e-commerce is an industry that is growing rigorously and so it implies cyber criminals have developed the skills of causing security threat to online shopper and the organisation as a whole. Ebay now due to the changing trend in technology and the e-commerce industry does not only auction but also sell various items on their web, though still hold on to their trade mark as the biggest auctioneers Mullen, As business operates in a complex and dynamic environment, the frameworks must be recycled or updates to match the ongoing trends and changes. Written according to live happily and tools such as.
Research Contributions Many scholars and authors have done certain number of research studies focused on the integration of SCOR model into their supply chains to match business processes. They on the other hand stated that e-commerce is dynamic and therefore has many forms and each o f these have unique challenges confronting it and corresponding customers and the need t o find a way to resolve for the safety and the protection of innocent customers and the security of their m o n e y and the respective businesses as a whole is imperative. Fianyi and my two lovely kids Jason and Josie. International Journal of Logistics 6, However, the supply chain management council stresses on the importance of risks management and defines risks from the organization and supply chain perspective. Globalization in terms refers to expansion of the business operations; when the business expands its density of operations or globalizes to different geographical locations, the supply chains of the organization has an considerable influence and risks evolving out of the expansion strategies. Research method play various roles such as determining the reasoning pattern of the researcher, how to interpret and communicate research findings to the understanding of the layman also it determinants regulations for standardised evaluation of findings of a research activity Beins,
The risk assessment and evaluation is based on decision analysis, with the help of case studies and perception-based assessments Manuj and Mentzer , p. Thank you 1.