The DNA not only codes for all the necessary proteins, it also determines what type a cell becomes e. The primary and secondary structure of the prion is almost identical to the normally expressed proteins in our brain cells, but the tertiary structure is different - they are folded into different shapes. This larger, more complex structure of the protein is its quaternary structure. The first step is transcription in which the sequence of one gene is replicated in an RNA molecule.
When a prion enters a healthy brain cell, it is capable of denaturing unwinding the native protein and then reshaping it in the same shape as the prion. What is the structure of DNA? Enzymes called chaperonins further modify the three-dimensional structure of the protein by folding it in particular ways. The double helix structure of DNA is another spatial scientific model.
Instead of thymine, RNA has uracil U. This weaker intermolecular bond is actually called a hydrogen bond, but you don't need to know any more detail at GCSE level.
The nucleotide is the small basic molecular unit - the monomer from which the polymer is formed. The attractive and repulsive forces between amino-acids cause the chain to fold in various ways.
The removal of introns the non-coding regions and putting together the remaining segments - exons - into a single chain again, is called RNA splicing. Each protein also has a specific 3D shape, essential for it to carry out its particular function e. Proteins are polymers of amino acids.
An individual nucleotide consists of three molecular bits combined together - the same phosphate group, a variable base adenine, cytosine, guanine or thymine , and the same pentose sugar pentose just means having a ring of 5 atoms. A with T and C with G are the linked complimentary base pairs. Every gene contains a different sequence of bases so it can code for a particular protein. The genetic code is almost universal. What is the structure of DNA?
These sugar chains serve as "ZIP-code tags" for the protein, informing carrier molecules exactly where in the cell this protein needs to be carried to usually within vesicles that bud off the Rough Enodplasmic Reticulum or the Golgi apparatus. How are proteins synthesised?
Your total DNA, that is the full contents of your genes, is called the genome.
The attractive and repulsive forces between amino-acids cause the chain to fold in various ways. These cross linking complementary base pair bonds hold the DNA strands tightly together giving it the necessary stability to perform their genetic roles. The DNA not only codes for all the necessary proteins, it also determines what type a cell becomes e.
It is the genes of the DNA that tells the ribosomes in cells the correct order to assemble the amino acids to make a specific protein. What is the function of RNA?
The three-dimensional shape of the polypeptide chain due to the chemical properties of its component amino-acids is called the secondary structure of the protein. A short section of DNA that codes for a particular protein is known as a gene. The exact sequence of nucleotides of all of the DNA on all the chromosomes is the genome.
Again, I'd appreciate comments on the correctness as well as suggestions for improvement. In order for this to happen, the amino acids in the cytoplasm are drawn into the ribosome complex and assembled in order to match the complementary triplet codes.