The related precursors and analogues, gamma-butyrolactone GBL and 1,4-butanediol 1,4-BD , are not found endogenously. However, when they are used, they are metabolically converted to GHB resulting in clinical effects almost identical to GHB. The legal status of these compounds varies around the world, with control of GHB being more widespread. This chapter will cover the pharmacology of these compounds, and patterns of acute toxicity, and associated chronic dependence.
Keywords This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Evidence obtained from well-designed controlled trials without randomization. II-2 Evidence obtained from well-designed cohort or case—control analytic studies, preferably from more than one center or research group. II-3 Evidence obtained from multiple time series with or without the intervention. Dramatic results in uncontrolled experiments such as the results of the introduction of penicillin treatment in the s could also be regarded as this type of evidence.
III Opinions of respected authorities, based on clinical experience, descriptive studies and case reports, or reports of expert committees. References 1. Drug Test Anal. Last accessed 16 May Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid in the treatment of alcohol and heroin dependence.
J Subst Use. Google Scholar 6. Antenne Trends in Alcohol, tabak en drugs bij jonge Amsterdammers. Amsterdam: Rozenberg; Google Scholar 7. Time to response with sodium oxybate for the treatment of excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy in patients with narcolepsy. J Clin Sleep Med. A week open-label, multicenter study evaluating the safety and patient-reported efficacy of sodium oxybate in patients with narcolepsy and cataplexy.
Sleep Med. Elliott S, Burgess V. Forensic Sci Int. The prevalence and correlates of gamma-hydroxybutyrate GHB overdose among Australian users. Stimulatory effects of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid on growth hormone and prolactin release in humans.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. Concomitant increases in serum growth hormone and hypothalamic somatostatin in rats after injection of gamma-aminobutyric acid, aminooxyacetic acid, or gamma-hydroxybutyric acid.
Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for direct production of 1,4-butanediol. Nat Chem Biol. Pharmacokinetics and excretion of gamma-hydroxybutyrate GHB in healthy subjects. J Anal Toxicol. Pharmacokinetics of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid in alcohol dependent patients after single and repeated oral doses. Br J Clin Pharmacol. Clinical pharmacology of 1,4-butanediol and gamma-hydroxybutyrate after oral 1,4-butanediol administration to healthy volunteers.
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Dependence of rat serum lactonase upon calcium. Preliminary report on the metabolism of gamma-butyrolactone and gamma-hydroxybutyric acid.
Gamma-hydroxybutyrate, a normal brain metabolite. At present, proposed conversion routes related to this reaction have significant variations. Methanol or absolute ethanol or used in place of acetonitrile and hydrochloric acid has been used rather than acetic acid.
Positive results have been mentioned yet the only means of identification by the cook has been personal taste testing or ingesting. Zinc dichromate trihydrate 5 : Boasting the highest yield, this reagent must be prepared by the chemist due to the lack of a commercial source.
The reported reaction was done at room temperature leaving any effect of temperature variation unknown. According to the paper, collection of the final product involves chromatographing the reaction solution on a silica gel column followed by solvent elution and distillation. Other common means of collection and purification are probably required in a clandestine setting. Also performed in chloroform or dichloromethane, zinc permanganate was found to be a superior oxidant compared to both potassium and magnesium manganates.
This particular reaction requires a silica gel support system as well as preparation of the reagent. Once prepared, the authors mention that zinc permanganate and magnesium permanganate "reacted instantly, with fires in some cases, when added to common laboratory solvents The low yield occurred when the THF and the oxidant were in equimolar amounts. As with the THF to GBL citations, most of the reaction conditions and catalysts are impractical for an underground chemist.
There are a few reagents, however, which have strong indications for future abuse. The reactions therefore require obtaining a chemical already noted for its abuse by GHB users. Those interested in the conversion cite the added danger to BDO ingestion and the unknown long term effects. Numerous posts involve the reaction conditions and reagent preparation and acquisition. The reagent and subsequent reaction yields are part of a patent regarding the dehydration of diols.
The authors explain the various reaction conditions as well as several catalyst mixtures of copper chromite and cupric oxide. The catalyst may be used multiple times. Cupric oxide 10 : This reagent is mentioned in the patent above as background research. Simpler than the cupric chromite reaction, this reagent requires only a liquid phase environment and high temperatures.
The high purity of this and the previous reagent is offset by the high temperature requirements.Sleep Med. Mechanisms that may underlie the behavioural effects of ethanol. Poldrugo F, Snead OC. III Opinions of respected authorities, based on clinical experience, descriptive studies and case reports, or reports of expert committees. Clin Toxicol Phila. AAPS J.
Mechanistic toxicokinetic model for gamma-hydroxybutyric acid: inhibition of active renal reabsorption as a potential therapeutic strategy. Although the paper mentions continued studies to improve the ether oxidation, personal communication with one of the authors revealed that this was not pursued. Cupric oxide 10 : This reagent is mentioned in the patent above as background research. The prevalence and correlates of gamma-hydroxybutyrate GHB overdose among Australian users.
Gamma-hydroxybutyrate withdrawal syndrome. Once prepared, the authors mention that zinc permanganate and magnesium permanganate "reacted instantly, with fires in some cases, when added to common laboratory solvents Toxicol Rev.
Zinc dichromate trihydrate 5 : Boasting the highest yield, this reagent must be prepared by the chemist due to the lack of a commercial source. Numerous posts involve the reaction conditions and reagent preparation and acquisition. Mechanisms that may underlie the behavioural effects of ethanol. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for direct production of 1,4-butanediol. The major psychoactive effects of 1,4-butanediol are because it is metabolized into GHB; however there is a study suggesting that 1,4-butanediol may have potential alcohol-like pharmacological effects that are not due to this conversion. Nat Chem Biol.
The major psychoactive effects of 1,4-butanediol are because it is metabolized into GHB; however there is a study suggesting that 1,4-butanediol may have potential alcohol-like pharmacological effects that are not due to this conversion. Google Scholar 7. The reaction involves a two-step oxidation which necessitates a ratio of reagent to precursor.
Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. Like GHB , 1,4-butanediol is only safe in small amounts.