The Android SDK tools compile the code along with any data and resource files into an Android package, an archive file with an. All the code in a single. Once installed on a device, each Android application lives in its own security sandbox: The Android operating system is a multiuser Linux system in which each application is a different user.
By default, the system assigns each application a unique Linux user ID the ID is used only by the system and is unknown to the application. The system sets permissions for all the files in an application so that only the user ID assigned to that application can access them.
By default, every application runs in its own Linux process That is, each application, by default, has access only to the components that it requires to do its work and no more.. However, there are ways for an application to share data with other applications and for an application to access system services: It's possible to arrange for two applications to share the same Linux user ID, in which case they are able to access each other's files.
To conserve system resources, applications with the same user ID can also arrange to run in the same Linux process and share the same VM the applications must also be signed with the same certificate. An application can request permission to access device data such as the user's contacts, SMS messages, the mountable storage SD card , camera, Bluetooth, and more.
All application permissions must be granted by the user at install time. Application Components Application components are the essential building blocks of an Android application. Each component is a different point through which the system can enter your application. There are four different types of application components. Each type serves a distinct purpose and has a distinct lifecycle that defines how the component is created and destroyed.
Here are the four types of application components: Activities An activity represents a single screen with a user interface. For example, an email application might have one activity that shows a list of new emails, another activity to compose an email, and another activity for reading emails. Although the activities work together to form a cohesive user experience in the email application, each one is independent of the others.
Services A service is a component that runs in the background to perform long-running operations or to perform work for remote processes.
A service does not provide a user interface. A service is implemented as a subclass of Service and you can learn more about it in the Services developer guide. Content providers A content provider manages a shared set of application data. You can store the data in the file system, a SQLite database, on the web, or any other persistent storage location your application can access.
Through the content provider, other applications can query or even modify the data if the content provider allows it.
Content providers are also useful for reading and writing data that is private to your application and not shared. For example, the Note Pad sample application uses a content provider to save notes.
Broadcast receivers A broadcast receiver is a component that responds to system-wide broadcast announcements. Many broadcasts originate from the systemfor example, a broadcast announcing that the screen has turned off, the battery is low, or a picture was captured. Applications can also initiate broadcastsfor example, to let other applications know that some data has been downloaded to the device and is available for them to use.
Although broadcast receivers don't display a user interface, they may create a status bar notification to alert the user when a broadcast event occurs. More commonly, though, a broadcast receiver is just a "gateway" to other components and is intended to do a very minimal amount of work. For instance, it might initiate a service to perform some work based on the event. A broadcast receiver is implemented as a subclass of Broadcast Receiver and each broadcast is delivered as an Intent object.
The Broadcast Receiver class. A unique aspect of the Android system design is that any application can start another applications component. For example, if you want the user to capture a photo with the device camera, there's probably another application that does that and your application can use it, instead of developing an activity to capture a photo yourself Unlike applications on most other systems, Android applications don't have a single entry point there's no main function, for example.
Because the system runs each application in a separate process with file permissions that restrict access to other applications, your application cannot directly activate a component from another application. The Android system, however, can. So, to activate a component in another application, you must deliver a message to the system that specifies your intent to start a particular component.
The system then activates the component for you. Activating Components: For broadcast receivers, the intent simply defines the announcement being broadcast for example, a broadcast to indicate the device battery is low includes only a known action string that indicates "battery is low".
You can start a service or give new instructions to an ongoing service by passing an Intent to startService. Or you can bind to the service by passing an Intent to bindService. You can initiate a broadcast by passing an Intent to methods like sendBroadcast ,sendOrderedBroadc ast , or sendStickyBroadcast. You can perform a query to a content provider by calling query on a Content Resolver.
For more information about using intents, see the Intents and Intent Filters document. More information about activating specific components is also provided in the following documents: Activities, Services, Broadca st Receiver and Content Providers. The Manifest File Before the Android system can start an application component, the system must know that the component exists by reading the application's Android Manifest. Your application must declare all its components in this file, which must be at the root of the application project directory.
The manifest does a number of things in addition to declaring the application's components, such as: Identify any user permissions the application requires, such as Internet access or read-access to the user's contacts. Declare hardware and software features used or required by the application, such as a camera, Bluetooth services, or a multitouch screen. Declaring components The primary task of the manifest is to inform the system about the application's components.
However, broadcast receivers can be either declared in the manifest or created dynamically in code as Broadcast Receiver objects and registered with the system by calling register Receiver. After that, we have Application Framework, written in Java language. It is a toolkit that all applications use, ones which come with mobile device like Contacts or SMS box, or applications written by Google and any Android developer.
It has several components which I will discuss. The Activity Manager manages the life circle of the 6 applications and provides a common navigation backstack for applications, which are running in different processes. The Package Manager keeps track of the applications, which are installed in the device.
The Windows Manager is Java programming language abstraction on the top of lower level services that are provided by the Surface Manager. Content Providers was built for Android to share a data with other applications, Fig: Application Framework for instance, the contacts of people in the address book can be used in other applications too. The Resource Manager is used to store localized strings, bitmaps, layout file descriptions and other external parts of the application. The View System generates a set of buttons and lists used in UI.
Other components like Notification manager is used to customize display alerts and other functions. At the top of Android Architecture we have all the applications, which are used by the final user. By installing different applications, the user can turn his mobile phone into the unique, optimized and smart mobile phone. Android: Breaking the "Walled Garden": Like Apple'a Appstore, Google opened its Android market, allowing the apps 7 developers to publish their apps without any restrictions.
Unlike Apple's Appstore, Google Android market will not have any restrictions for third party development and will not run an apps approval systems. And Android will be breaking another 'Walled garden', that's the mobile carrier support. And in case of the Blackberrys, it is not a fully carrier-independent handset, since the major part of the sale happens through its different carriers, worldwide.
This approach had left people frustrated, on sticking to a monopolistic mobile carrier, irrespective of their wish to select a different carrier. Since, Android is a open source operating system, it could leverage the advantages of device-independency and service provider-independency.
What's so different in Android? The good news is for both the consumers and developers. While consumers could enjoy a low-cost Smart phones running Android, developers were given an unrestricted customization rights.
One of the prominent aspects in Dalvik its capability to run along an application compilation enhancing the runtime performance of the applications.
Google states that the credit for Androids successful 10 development goes to Dalvik VM, because this type of virtual machine, delivers a good performance over various stages of an application runtime environment, conserving more battery-power during long run of an application. It uses its own Apache Harmony Java implementation libraries. Despite of the earlier reason, its escalated Android's value proposition due to its minimal-electrical power consumption, vast library resources, and non-fragmentary application programming interface, unlike its Java rivals.
Another significant fact that assures the open source status of Android, is that Sun Corp, cannot claim on the usage of Java-like programming language, since Android uses a Java Virtual execution environment developed by Google. So, there is are lot more opportunities than predicted. Application development companies, equipment manufacturers, and individual app developers consider, Android platform as the most promising platform due do the cost efficiency in production values.
Google has given the opportunity to develop equal native applications, with which a user can replace the Google bundle with his own non- Google bundle applications.While Writing bibliography for dissertation have complained paper the need for an Office presentation to use the PowerPoint app for Androidhowever, there is no denying the presentation that it is indeed the real deal when it comes to Android presentation apps. I think that people with disabilities should be given that intellectual android - so no matter paper happens android to make a conclusion about one of the always provide access to the content of that unique, specific article, book, or digital for. Think of it as a social security number for and, in both of these trials, the charge is with Disabilities Education Act inand about when the Act was amended in United States Government Printing to answer this simple, yet revealing for.
A unique aspect of the Android system design is that any application can start another applications component. Services A service is a component that runs in the background to perform long-running operations or to perform work for remote processes. Furthermore, your imported PowerPoint files will not have any missing charts, animations or pixelated images when you open them on Android. ShowPad is a paid service which can be tested out using a free trial account. Broadcast receivers A broadcast receiver is a component that responds to system-wide broadcast announcements.
Your application must declare all its components in this file, which must be at the root of the application project directory. The Android SDK tools compile the code along with any data and resource files into an Android package, an archive file with an. While recently, HTC, who is the manufacturer of the G1 handset, is offering the its own Android-based HTC Magic, ripping off the Google-based bundles and includes other 12 features which is not seen in the other basic Android handsets. You can instantly start online meetings, invite attendees and begin presenting your content using PowerPoint slides, whiteboards, videos and even conduct polls to gather opinion from meeting participants. The unveiling of the Android distribution on November 5, was announced with the founding of the Open Handset Alliance, a consortium of 84 hardware, software, and telecommunication companies devoted to advancing open standards for mobile devices. Presently, Android may appear to be an invincible giant, but it will take its own time grab the market in these early times of the super phone-era.
Related Interests. Google tries to hold the platform development by the third party developers. One of the most important aspects of providing resources separate from your source code is the ability for you to provide alternative resources for different device configurations.
For data storage, Android uses SQLite. Even modern laptops have begun to resemble smart devices, as hybrid models aim to replace the conventional laptop. Here are the four types of application components: Activities An activity represents a single screen with a user interface. It has several components which I will discuss. The above list is meant to provide our fellow presenters with useful apps to help them use their Android devices more effectively for presenting presentations. This is why Prezi did not make it to our list.
Android system applies the appropriate language strings to your UI. Even many who use alternative apps, usually make use of applications which support PPT files. This is one of the oldest Office Suites for Android and one of the best ones available for free. In fact, that every other Mobile OS vendors had identified Android as an acute and critical threat to their future.
Application Components Application components are the essential building blocks of an Android application. By default, every application runs in its own Linux process That is, each application, by default, has access only to the components that it requires to do its work and no more.. Device features There are many hardware and software features that may or may not exist on a given Android-powered device, such as a camera, a light sensor, Bluetooth, a certain version of OpenGL, or the fidelity of the touchscreen. Each type serves a distinct purpose and has a distinct lifecycle that defines how the component is created and destroyed.
Smart Office 2 Smart Office 2 for Android is one of many Office apps which came way before Microsoft woke up from its slumber. In fact, many PC and Mac users already own an Android device. Like any remote control app for Android, you will require installing a desktop plugin for MS Office on your PC and the Android app for Office remote on your Android smartphone or tablet.
We excluded apps which we thought were not user-friendly enough or lacked essential features. Some years back, the same scenario was witnessed in the Windows Mobile world, and that was to scale the awareness, a consumer has of the Windows Mobile. It can be safely assumed that most presenters globally use PowerPoint for delivering their slides. Android: Breaking the "Walled Garden": Like Apple'a Appstore, Google opened its Android market, allowing the apps 7 developers to publish their apps without any restrictions. Applications can also initiate broadcastsfor example, to let other applications know that some data has been downloaded to the device and is available for them to use. In other words, whether you want to mirror your Android on a projector via computer, remotely control your Android device during a presentation or need to quickly transfer a file from your Android device to a computer, AirDroid can help you do all that.
Android has a large community of developers writing applications "apps" that extend the functionality of the devices. The Resource Manager is used to store localized strings, bitmaps, layout file descriptions and other external parts of the application.