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This can be a PDF file or a Word document, in any format or lay-out that can be used by referees to evaluate your manuscript. It should contain high enough quality figures for refereeing. If you prefer to do so, you may still provide all or some of the source files at the initial submission. Tick-pathogen molecular interactions. Tick Cell Apoptosis Apoptosis is an intrinsic immune defense mechanism in response to microbial infection that results in reduction of infected cells, but several pathogens have developed different strategies to inhibit cell apoptosis in order to enhance their infection, replication and survival Ashida et al.
Infection of tick salivary glands with A. Tick cells respond to infection via activation of the extrinsic apoptosis pathway, which limits A. In tick midguts, A. The ISE6 cultured cells, derived from embryonic I. In this cell line, A. However, tick cells respond by activating protein targeting and degradation, which reduces ER stress and apoptosis, thus favoring A.
Additionally, A. These results show that the inhibition of tick cell apoptosis is a physiologically relevant mechanism used by A. Infection of I. However, the lack of detection of caspase genes, and the up-regulation of genes that inhibit apoptosis including hsp70 suggest that flavivirus infection inhibits tick cell apoptosis in order to promote cell survival during infection as previously shown for A.
With respect to the tick innate immune response, A. In contrast, Subolesin SUB , also involved in tick innate immune response for limiting pathogen infection Naranjo et al. SUB has been shown to be required for tick feeding and reproduction and for pathogen infection, and therefore the preservation of this protein is important for both tick and pathogen survival de la Fuente and Contreras, After molting, tick nymphs attach and start feeding, displaying an altered midgut transcriptome when infected with B.
Some of the genes affected by infection include innate immune factors defensin and thioredoxin peroxidase that possibly limit tick Borrelia infection. Tick salivary protein 20 Salp20 belongs to a protein family with complement-inhibitory activity that blocks the host alternative complement pathway and assists in Borrelia transmission Hourcade et al.
Tick salivary lectin pathway inhibitor TSLPI inhibits the human lectin complement pathway by interfering with the mannose binding lectin activity and enables transmission of Borrelia by protecting it from complement-mediated killing Schuijt et al. Recently, Smith et al. A similar approach has identified this response in tick cells infected with LIV and TBEV, with a range of transcripts being up and down-regulated Weisheit et al.
CCHFV is capable of evading the tick innate immune response. Following intracoelomic CCHFV inoculation, virus titers in male and female ticks are the same and infection rates and titers in salivary glands, ovaries, and testes increase upon blood feeding Dickson and Turell, Therefore, viral replication in tissues associated with possible CCHFV transmission in infected ticks may be stimulated by attachment and feeding on susceptible hosts.
This might reduce the stress induced by viral replication while ticks are waiting to find a vertebrate host, but increase the potential for viral transmission once the host is infested Turell, Genes involved in immunity, stress, and defense responses showed up-regulation in response to B. The putative role of SUB in B. Recently, A. The results of this study suggested that a compensatory mechanism might exist by which A. As previously discussed Cabezas-Cruz et al. It has been previously demonstrated that A.
It remains to be tested whether A. At the tick-pathogen interface, A. Neelakanta et al. They further showed that improved survival of infected ticks correlated with higher bacterial infection, therefore providing a direct link between pathogen infection and tick fitness in unfavorable ecological conditions. The proposed indexes arise in a natural way from the dynamical model using the theory of dynamical systems and networks [ 14 , 24 — 28 ].
We focus our attention in two types of indexes. One of them, is a measure of the potential transmission and spread of the disease caused by human behavior.
The other kind of index is a measure of the transmission caused by the particular spatial distribution of mosquitoes. Specifically, information campaigns targeted at promoting some convenient behaviors like going to hospitals at first symptoms, use of repellents, mosquito nets and large cloths can be guided by the human transmission risk index TRi.
This is so, because this transmission risk index is a measure of the potential secondary infections the inhabitants of a particular neighborhood cause in the whole system.
On the other hand, abatization, fumigation and hatchery elimination targeting at reducing vector population can be guided by the vector transmission risk index VTRi. This index is a measure of the potential secondary cases that the mosquitoes of a certain neighborhood cause in the system. Thus, this set of indexes can be used to guide a complex strategy in which the resources focused in changing vector population or human habits do not necessarily are applied in the same place.
In addition to this, we also find useful the vulnerability risk index VRi to guide monitoring actions of early warning protocols as this index measures the potential secondary cases in a particular neighborhood caused by the whole system. Even if this indexes can be used to guide control measures they are build to guide prevention measures, thus they are independent of an outbreak state.
This is a main difference between the proposed risk indexes and optimal control strategies where the state of the epidemics needs to be known thus being reactive and not preventive. While the proposed indexes consider population densities, they also take into account human mobility, so they can be used to propose a global control strategy.
That means that the risk indexes take into account that a neighborhood with important human inward flux and outward flux has more chance to be a corridor for the spread of the disease. Thus, the kind of questions that can be answered using these indexes are: Which area is more likely to act as a corridor and which is more vulnerable, i. In which neighborhood the hatchery control will reduce more the number of potential cases? In which neighborhood will the resource allocation be more effective in surveillance of cases and immediate attention?
Materials and methods Risk indexes We look for to define summary measures that capture important information of how a virus transmitted by a vector like the A. Hosts and vectors coexist, but each patch has its particular social and ecological features, i. Because of the A. In general, the spread process caused by human mobility is as follows. An individual that normally is in patch i a resident travels to patch k, where they becomes infected by a mosquito. The reference section should only include the key papers that have contributed to conceptual advances in the field under review, rather than being fully comprehensive.
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The implementation of information campaigns like promoting to cap water recipients, the use of repellents and mosquito nets, or even visit the physician at first symptoms have been also important. They further showed that improved survival of infected ticks correlated with higher bacterial infection, therefore providing a direct link between pathogen infection and tick fitness in unfavorable ecological conditions.
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You can simply select the variable, press the Edit Consequently, they potentially allow to proceed in the correct places, and before troubles have arisen. That number was reduced to after excluding duplicate records.
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An Introduction enables readers unfamiliar with the subject to become acquainted with the importance of the results presented; relevant references should be included. They can also indicate the neighborhood where hatchery control will reduce more the number of potential cases.