Why should I cite my sources? To demonstrate you have considered others' research. To direct readers to additional information. To establish credibility as a careful researcher. To show professional honesty and courtesy. In-text references How you cite a working within your document varies depending on your writing style, whether you are quoting your source directly, and the type of source you are quoting. When using APA format, follow the author, date method of in-text citation.
This means that the author's last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, e. If you are referring to an idea from another work but not directly quoting the material, or making reference to an entire book, article or other work, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication in your in-text reference.
Here are some examples of in-text citations: Short quotations If you are directly quoting from a work, include the author, year of publication, and the page number for the reference preceded by "p.
Introduce the quotation with a signal phrase that includes the author's last name followed by the date of publication in parentheses. According to Jones , "Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time" p. Jones found "students often had difficulty using APA style" p. If the author is not named in a signal phrase, place the author's last name, the year of publication, and the page number in parentheses after the quotation.
Long quotations Direct quotations longer than 40 words should be in a free-standing block of typewritten lines, and omit quotation marks. Start the quotation on a new line, indented five spaces from the left margin. Type the entire quotation on the new margin, and indent the first line of any subsequent paragraph within the quotation five spaces from the new margin. Maintain double-spacing throughout.
The parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark. Jones's study found the following: Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time citing sources. According to Jones , APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners. APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners Jones, , p.
Citing an Author or Authors Two Authors: Name both authors in the signal phrase or in the parentheses each time you cite the work. Use the word "and" between the authors' names within the text and use the ampersand in the parentheses. Research by Wegener and Petty supports Kernis et al.
Six or More Authors: Use the first author's name followed by et al. This resource provides detailed guidelines for citing sources in your paper and includes examples of in-text citation for reference by research authors. When referring to external work or referencing an entire work but not directly quoting the material, you only need to make reference to the author and year of publication and not the page number in your citation. The results of the first enzyme study Chen et al. If you have referred to the author of the work in the sentence or earlier in the paragraph, you only need to include the year of publication in the citation.
Chen discusses several relationships revealed in this study. Verb tense used in referring to other works APA style requires authors to use past tense or present perfect tense NOT present tense when using signal phrases to refer to or discuss previous research. Klinge and Rogers found that mirroring is instrumental in developments of performative gender roles.
When giving information that reflects the results or implications of previous work, place the citation author and publication date at the end of the sentence. Mirroring has been found to be instrumental in the development of performative gender roles Klinge and Rogers, Capitalization Always capitalize author names and initials in in-text citations.
Include the page number in parentheses at the end of the quoted text. Note that the quotation marks surround the text only, and not the parenthetical citation. In-text Citation Rules for Long Quotations Long direct quotations are those with at least 40 words of quoted text in a row.
Separate the entries with a blank line. Li, X. There is not an easy way for companies to quantitatively analyze visual design decisions.
When referring to external work or referencing an entire work but not directly quoting the material, you only need to make reference to the author and year of publication and not the page number in your citation. For two author papers, give both authors' last names e. DOI number. Publication year. Influences of retail brand trust, off-line patronage, clothing involvement and website quality on online apparel shopping intention: Online apparel shopping intention. Web page or web site Examples: Little, J.
Perceived and objective usability and visual appeal in a website domain with a less developed mental model. The general form of citations in the body of the text is to include the author and date in parentheses as above and optionally include the page number s after the date. Many of the references you use will come from published sources. Do not number the references.
Our APA format machine can help you create every reference for your paper. Masters Thesis, University of Alaska, Anchorage. When a book, paper, or article has no identifiable author, cite it as Anon. Jones found "students often had difficulty using APA style" p.
Basic Guidelines The purpose of the term paper in ECS 15 is for you to learn how to do effective research on a subject and then write it up clearly, showing where you got your information. Note: In the rare case the "Anonymous" is used for the author, treat it as the author's name Anonymous, Harris et al. There are many good referencing guides for Harvard styles since it is one of the most used, and some are given in the section on recommended books, websites etc. The results of the first enzyme study Chen et al. Use a date sufficiently specific for the item.
Images, illustrations, maps etc.